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Monthly Archives: January 2011

Pharmacokinetics

The word Pharmacokinetics is derived from Greek words Pharmacon (drug) and kinein (to move). Thus Pharmacokinetics is the quantitative study of drug movement through and out of the body. To obtain the right effect with minimum risk of toxicity, the dose and mode of administration of the drug is determined …

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Biotransformation

Biotransformation means chemical change of a drug within a living organism. Drugs are foreign substances to the body. So body tries to get rid of them subjecting to various mechanisms. After absorption, drugs could undergo three possible fates: Excreted unchanged. Metabolized by enzymes. Spontaneously changed into other substances because of …

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Distribution of drug

Once a drug has entered the bloodstream after absorption, the distribution of drug to various fluid compartments such as: a. Plasma. b. Interstitial fluid compartment (extracellular fluid space). c. Transcellular fluid compartment, e.g. fluid in the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, CSF. d. Cellular fluid compartment (intracellular fluid compartment). Every drug is …

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Bioavailability

Bioavailability of a drug means availability of biologically active drug. It is a determination of the amount or fraction of administered dose of the given dosage form that reaches the systemic circulation in the unchanged form. In other words, it is the rate at which and extent to which an …

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Drug clearance or elimination kinetics

Drug clearance or Kinetics of Elimination Time course of drug clearance that is absorption, distribution and elimination can be determined in mathematical terms. Such a determination is important and its clinical significance is: In understanding and planning drug regimes. In deciding drug dose schedules. In helping and supplementing to clinical …

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Routes of drug administration

Routes of drug administration may be either applied locally or administered systemically. It depends on nature of drug as well as patient. Factors, which govern the choice of routes of drug administration of a drug, are: Physical and chemical nature of the drug. Rate and extent of absorption of the …

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Sources of drugs

Sources of drugs are of various types and these drugs can be obtained from various sources such as: 1. Animal, e.g. antitoxic sera, gonadotrophines, heparin, insulin and thyroid extract. 2. Drugs produced by genetic engineering (i.e. by DNA recombinant technology), e.g. human growth hormone and human insulin. 3. Mineral, e.g. …

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Afip fascicles

The afip fascicles comprises of a series of books that are considered to be some of the best reference texts available till date. The various afip fascicles are compiled  and edited by some of the most experienced and respected pathologists available in the entire globe. Each of the afip fascicles …

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Muscular strength exercise

Finding good muscular strength exercise is not always easy because apart from doing different types of exercises, it is equally important to perform it in the right manner. The best exercise for increasing muscle strength would be lifting of heavy weights. Muscular strength exercise in the form of free hand …

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Function of adrenaline

Adrenaline is a hormone secreted by adrenal glands which causes the body to show response to sudden stress or exhilarating situations. It is also known as epinephrine. When someone becomes scared or angry adrenaline is released in the blood. The function of adrenaline is to bring changes in the body  …

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