Disruptive behavior disorder – Children are expected to behave within the socially acceptable limits, which is determined by their age, social norms, training/moral standards and parent-child relationship. Negativism i.e. opposition to parental instructions is a normal phase of development during 18- 36 months of age, leading to anger/frustration. By 4-5 years,… Continue Reading Disruptive behavior disorder – symptoms, management, diagnosis and treatment

All children acquire one or more habits at some point of their development. The term disorders in children denotes unusual persistence of habits, which interfere child’s physical, emotional and social functioning. Most of these disorders indicate a physical expression of underlying emotional tension (tension-discharge phenomena). Althougn the list of disorders in children… Continue Reading Disorders in children

Vegetative disorder may be defined as ‘abnormalities of vegetative functions e.g. eating, evacuation or sleep, either due to delayed maturation of bodily functions or abnormal psychosocial development’. However, some of them may have underlying organic etiology that needs to be excluded. Pica, enuresis and encopresis are common Vegetative disorder in… Continue Reading Vegetative disorder

Learning disorders or disabilities (Minimum brain dysfunction syndrome) include a large group of low severity-high incidence disorders, all characterized by ‘difficulties in coping with academic skills (learning) due to problems related to attention span, speech, language or motor co-ordination, which can not be explained by intelligence quotient, visual and hearing… Continue Reading Learning disorders

Mental retardation in children is defined as the ‘sub-average intellectual functioning resulting from any insult during the period of development, co-existing with limitations in at least two of the following 10 areas of adaptive behaviors – communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics,… Continue Reading Mental retardation in children