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Monthly Archives: March 2011

PEM Management

PEM Management: Depending on the severity, PEM may be managed at home, nutritional rehabilitation centers, or hospital. Hospitalization is indicated in cases with severe PEM, life-threatening complications, severe anorexia and refusal to accept oral feeds, emotionally deprived or neglected child, and failure of domiciliary treatment. PEM Management aims towards diagnosis …

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Nutritive value of Indian foods

Nutritive value of Indian foods – Due to marked geographic variations in India, It is important to consider local food preferences, availability and affordability, while offering nutritional counseling. Nutritive value of Indian foods are discussed here. All protein and caloric values in the following discussion are given as in 100 …

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Balanced diet for children

Balanced diet for children is the ‘diet containing variety of foods in such quantities and proportions, which fulfills the needs for all essential nutrients, necessary to maintain optimal health and growth. Principles: General characteristics of a balanced diet for children, based on dietary goals from various sources (Prudent diet; WHO) …

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What is weaning & when is it required

Weaning (Complementary feeding) may be defined as “gradual introduction of semi-solids and solids in baby’s diet apart from breast milk, to meet their growing demands, usually at 4-6 months.” Note that weaning is a complementary process and not the discontinuation of Breast feeding, which should continue as long as possible. …

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Top feeding – Other than breast milk

Top feeding means feeding of milks other than the breast milk in early infancy, should be strictly discouraged. However, it may be necessary in rare instances of true lactation failure, maternal death/serious sickness, or any absolute/relative contraindication for Breast feeding. Top feeding may be loosely classified as exclusive top-feeding, or …

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Lactation failure

Lactation failure – Breast milk (EM) is the only food that a baby needs unto first 4-6 months of life and gives the best possible nutritional start to the neonate. Exclusive breastfeeding (BF) means that the neonate gets only breast milk and nothing else like honey, water, juices, vitamins (unless …

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Breast feeding problems

Common Breast feeding problems may be broadly divided into three categories I) breast and nipple problems, II) partial or complete lactation failure, and III) Breast feeding problems in special situations like sick mother, sick baby or working mother. I) Breast feeding problems & nipple problems are very common and often …

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Breastfeeding practices

Although Breast feeding (BF) is a norm in India, many problems during lactation may be avoided by following correct breastfeeding practices, discussed below — Antenatal preparation is one of the good breastfeeding practices with Breast examination to check protractility of nipples, maternal counseling regarding importance and correct practices of Breast feeding, …

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Physiology of lactation

Physiology of lactation – Anatomically, the breast is made up of glandular tissue, supporting tissue and fat. There are 20-25 alveoli in each breast, each lined by epithelial cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. Milk is secreted in alveoli by epithelial cells and pushed forward by contraction of myoepithelial cells. …

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Dental Endoscope

Dental Endoscope – Endoscopy is the inspection of body cavities and organs using an endoscope, which consists of a tube and optical system with a high intensity light. The image captured by the endoscope camera is projected onto a video monitor for viewing. Since the introduction of modem endoscopy by Hopkins …

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