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Monthly Archives: March 2011

Radiographic errors

Radiographic errors – There are three major areas in which incorrect procedures cause errors: 1. Projection. How the X-ray source is positioned in relation to the film. 2. Exposure. How films are positioned in relation to the teeth and the collimator. 3. Processing. How the film is developed. Some of …

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Radiographic processing

Radiographic processing – Three methods are used to process radiographs:Instant or chairside, automatic (machine) processing, and manual processing. (1) Instant or Chairside Developing The instant or chair side developing method uses a special chemical formula and apparatus to bring out the latent image. It enables the dentist to perform a …

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Advantages of breast feeding

BM is species-spec jfic i.e. quantitatively and qualitatively most appropriate for human baby. Apart from nutritional superiority, Advantages of breast feeding are many for the baby, mother, family and even to the community, Nutritional superiority in advantages of breast feeding BM is easily digestible and contains all essential nutrients in …

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Essential Nutrients in children

Essential Nutrients are the active principles in diet, each with various functions and metabolic patterns. Essential Nutrients may be classified as — a) Macro nutrients or proximate principles like proteins, fats and carbohydrates. b) Micro-nutrients like Vitamins and minerals. Proteins, which constitute —20% of body weight, are important source of …

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Nutritional Requirements

Nutritional Requirements is a dynamic process to supply adequate nourishment for survival, growth & development, repair and creation of future reserves. Weight-wise, nutritional requirements of children are relatively higher than in adults due to active growth, building of stores, higher basal metabolic rate and more pronounced physical activity. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS …

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Child Guidance Clinic

Child Guidance Clinic (CGC) is a specialized health service, based on an integrated and multidisciplinary approach to deal with the behavioral problems of children and adolescents, who are not fully adjusted to their environment. The first child guidance clinic was started in Chicago in 1909. The team: Child guidance is …

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – diagnosis, management and treatment

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children, characterized by three core-groups of age-inappropriate symptoms hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness; leading to secondary problems like poor scholastic performance, conduct disorders, emotional and social maladjustment etc. While some children have all three components of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, …

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Psychosomatic Disorders in children

Psychosomatic Disorders – Although emotional stress is a known precipitating/ exacerbating event for many medical illnesses e.g. asthma, diarrhea or epilepsy; two specific and important psychosomatic illnesses are conversion disorder and Munchausen syndrome by proxy, discussed here. Conversion disorder denotes loss or alteration of physical functioning without a demonstrable illness. …

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Anxiety Disorders in children

Anxiety Disorders – Anxiety/fear is a normal part of development, beginning with stranger’s fear by 6-8 months of age. The term anxiety disorders or neurosis denotes ‘disproportionately excessive anxiety to a real event or undue anxiety to an imaginary cause’. Common anxiety disorders include — a) Phobia e.g. school phobia …

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Behavioral disorders

Behavioral disorders – Development of behavior in children is a complex process, influenced by inherent temperament as well as exogenous influences like family and social environment.  Consequently, all children, like all adults, have unique behavioral traits, usually within the acceptable limits of deviance. It is important to differentiate these benign …

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