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Monthly Archives: May 2011

Hypernatremia in children

Hypernatremia in children is relatively less common than hyponatremia, defined as serum sodium levels> 150 meqlL. Causes Hypernatremia in children is usually iatrogenic in origin, due to use of concentrated ORS/parenteral fluids. Concentration hypematremia is seen in disorders with excessive water loss e.g. diabetes insipidus. Pathophysiology Hypernatremia leads to increased …

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Edema in children

Edema in children is a clinical term to denote – excess accumulation of fluids in interstitial fluid compartment, which normally contributes to ā€”45% of TBW. Etiology Edema is caused by any factor that a) reduces plasma oncotic pressure, b) increases hydrostatic pressure, c) increases capillary permeability, and d) prevents lymphatic …

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Calcitonin

Calcitonin is synthesized and released from the parafollicular ā€˜Cā€™ cells of the thyroid gland and both the processes are under the control of plasma levels of calcaemia. Hypercalcaemia stimulates the synthesis and release of calcitonin. Besides, the release of calcitonin is also stimulated by several compounds such as glucagon, prolactin, …

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D occurs in two related forms: a. Cholecalciferol (vit. D3): It is produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by the action of ultraviolet light from the sun rays. b. Ergocalciferol (vit. D2 calciferol): It is obtained from vegetable source. It is the form which is used in commercial vitamin …

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Parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D are the main agents that control the homeostatic regulation of extracellular calcium, inorganic phosphate and bone growth (mineral metabolism). In the human adult, about 98% of the calcium and 85% of phosphorus are present in the bones. So the bones are the principal reservoir …

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