Documentary evidence in forensic science: It is of three types – Medical Certificates They refer to ill- health, insanity, age, death, etc. They are accepted in a Court of law, only when they are issued by a qualified registered medical practitioner. The certificate of ill-health should contain exact nature of… Continue Reading Documentary evidence in forensic science

The Glucocorticoids influence carbohydrate and protein metabolism whereas the mineralocorticoids affect water and electrolyte balance. Glucocorticoids enter target cells by diffusion and bind to specific receptors present in the cell nucleus. Thus they regulate protein synthesis by stimulating messenger RNA formation. Partly the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may be due… Continue Reading Glucocorticoids

Anaphylactic reaction is acute, life-threatening IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, provoked by variety of injected, inhaled or ingested foreign substances. Note that the term anaphylactic reaction denotes clinically similar reactions to certain agents e.g. radid-contrast dyes, which are not immunologically mediated. Causes Common precipitating agents for anaphylactic reaction are shown on many sites online,… Continue Reading Anaphylactic reaction

Phagocytosis process is the first line of immunological defense to engulf and digest foreign antigens and process them for presentation to  its specific cells. It is mediated by two different cell types i.e. circulatory phagocytes i.e. neutrophils and tissue phagocytes i.e. macrophages, which are derived from monocytes and populate tissues… Continue Reading Phagocytosis

Complement deficiency are rarely congenital, seen more commonly as acquired defects due to — a) Deficient production e.g. in newborns, PEM and chronic liver diseases, b) Defective function e.g. in sickle cell disease, c) Increased consumption or loss e.g. in septicemia, bums, SLE and nephrotic syndrome. Clinical features Clinically, complement deficiency… Continue Reading Complement deficiency

Immunoglobulins (IgG) or antibodies are serum proteins, produced by B cells, which a) inactivate, agglutinate antigens for phagocytosis, b) activate complement system for cytolysis. These immunoglobulins may be present on the surface of B- cells (surface immuno globulins) or secreted in extracellular medium (secretory immuno globulins). Depending on their properties and role… Continue Reading Immunoglobulins

Antihistamines – There are two types of histamine antagonists namely H1 receptor antagonists (classical type) and H2 receptor antagonists (used in peptic ulcer). Only H1 receptor antagonists are described below and 112 receptor antagonists will be discussed along with other drugs used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. H1 antihistamines antagonists act by… Continue Reading Antihistamines

Lipoproteins are spherical particles. They transport triglycerides and cholesterol esters through the plasma. Both are non-polar hydrophobic lipids. They form the core of it, which is surrounded by a hydrophilic surface coat of phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol and apoproteins. Due to hydrophilic surface coat, it becomes soluble in plasma and acts… Continue Reading Lipoproteins & their types

Drugs used for the treatment of Hyperlipidemia are called Antihyperlipidemic. The aim of the treatment is to lower the concentration of VLDL and LDL and raise HDL. 1.  Antihyperlipidemic Drugs which Primarily Reduce Plasma Triglycerides i. Nicotinic acid (niacin, B3): It is a water soluble vitamin. It lowers plasma triglyceride levels.… Continue Reading Antihyperlipidemic drugs reduce Plasma Triglycerides & Cholesterol