Rickets is defined as failure of mineralization of the growing bones, which should not be confused with osteomalacia i.e. defective mineralization of mature bones, or osteoporosis i.e. de-mineralization of pre-mineralized bones. Rickets may be broadly divided into two categories Vitamin D deficiency or nutritional rickets, and Vitamin D-resistant or refractory… Continue Reading Rickets – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Vitamin E deficiency – Vitamin E is a group of natural fat-soluble compounds – ct-tocoferols. Physiology Vitamin E is an important anti-oxidant (free-radical scavenger) as well as involved in nucleic acid metabolism and stabilization of cellular membranes. It is widely distributed in vegetable oils,fats and nuts, specially those rich in polyunsaturated fatty… Continue Reading Vitamin E deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency – Cobalamin is a cobalt-containing vitamin, essential for nucleic acid metabolism and myelin formation. (Cyancobalamin is the therapeutic preparation, used to treat Vitamin B1, deficiency). Widely present in animal sources, Vitamin B12 is absent in plant foods, but may be endogenously synthesized by colonic bacteria. Vitamin B12 absorption… Continue Reading Vitamin B12 deficiency

HIB vaccination – HIB infection is one of the leading cause of pneumonia and meningitis in infants and toddlers, though the incidence declines with advancing age and uncommon beyond 5 years. Although considered as an essential vaccine by lAP for all children, high cost prohibits its inclusion in NIS. Currently,… Continue Reading HIB vaccination – contents, supply & storage, protection

DPT vaccine (Triple vaccine) is a combination vaccine against three diseases – Diptheria, Tetanus and Pertusis. Currently, DPT is also Commercially available as combination vaccines with HBV and/or HIB vaccine. Two other related vaccines are – DT (devoid of pertusis component), and DTaP (containing only acellular component of pertusis bacilli).… Continue Reading DPT vaccine and its side effects

The term autistic or pervasive development disorders denotes a spectrum of clinically similar disorders with variable severity, all characterized by a triad of  impaired social interaction, impaired verbal & nonverbal communication, and rigid, repetitive or obsessive behavior. While childhood Autistic spectrum disorder (Infantile autism) is the prototype of this spectrum,… Continue Reading Autistic spectrum disorder

Clinical spectrum of Protein energy malnutrition is a continuum, ranging from borderline growth delay to well-defined syndromes of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Within this spectrum, many other terms are used to denote clinical variations e.g. Prekwashiorkor, Marasmic kwashiorkor (MK), Nutritional dwarfism etc. Broadly, clinical presentations of Protein energy malnutrition may be divided into… Continue Reading Kwashiorkor and Marasmus

Diverticular disease of the colon is a digestive disease and it is also referred to a diverticulitis of the colon. This is due to the formation of pouch like structures referred to as diverticula on the outside of the colon. This is quite commonly found in people who eat unhygienic food… Continue Reading Diverticular disease of the colon – causes, diagnosis and treatment