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Monthly Archives: May 2012

Rickets – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Rickets is defined as failure of mineralization of the growing bones, which should not be confused with osteomalacia i.e. defective mineralization of mature bones, or osteoporosis i.e. de-mineralization of pre-mineralized bones. Rickets may be broadly divided into two categories Vitamin D deficiency or nutritional rickets, and Vitamin D-resistant or refractory …

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Vitamin E deficiency

Vitamin E deficiency – Vitamin E is a group of natural fat-soluble compounds – ct-tocoferols. Physiology Vitamin E is an important anti-oxidant (free-radical scavenger) as well as involved in nucleic acid metabolism and stabilization of cellular membranes. It is widely distributed in vegetable oils,fats and nuts, specially those rich in polyunsaturated fatty …

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Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency – Cobalamin is a cobalt-containing vitamin, essential for nucleic acid metabolism and myelin formation. (Cyancobalamin is the therapeutic preparation, used to treat Vitamin B1, deficiency). Widely present in animal sources, Vitamin B12 is absent in plant foods, but may be endogenously synthesized by colonic bacteria. Vitamin B12 absorption …

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DPT vaccine and its side effects

DPT vaccine (Triple vaccine) is a combination vaccine against three diseases – Diptheria, Tetanus and Pertusis. Currently, DPT is also Commercially available as combination vaccines with HBV and/or HIB vaccine. Two other related vaccines are – DT (devoid of pertusis component), and DTaP (containing only acellular component of pertusis bacilli). …

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Autistic spectrum disorder

The term autistic or pervasive development disorders denotes a spectrum of clinically similar disorders with variable severity, all characterized by a triad of  impaired social interaction, impaired verbal & nonverbal communication, and rigid, repetitive or obsessive behavior. While childhood Autistic spectrum disorder (Infantile autism) is the prototype of this spectrum, …

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Kwashiorkor and Marasmus

Clinical spectrum of Protein energy malnutrition is a continuum, ranging from borderline growth delay to well-defined syndromes of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Within this spectrum, many other terms are used to denote clinical variations e.g. Prekwashiorkor, Marasmic kwashiorkor (MK), Nutritional dwarfism etc. Broadly, clinical presentations of Protein energy malnutrition may be divided into …

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Vitamin A deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), till recently, was the commonest cause of preventable blindness in Indian children. Although the prevalence of severe disease has markedly declined in recent years due to preventive supplementation programs, sub clinical Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a major public health problem, with an estimated prevalence …

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Vitamin c deficiency

Scurvy is well-defined acute manifestation of Vitamin C deficiency, though mild or sub clinical deficiency states may present with impaired wound healing, bleeding gums, mild anemia and increased susceptibility for infections. Physiology Vitamin C or Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, essential for synthesis of — a) normal collagen by …

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