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Monthly Archives: August 2012

Occupational dystonia (writers cramp)

Occupational dystonia is one form of focal dystonia where dystonic postures and movements occur while performing a specific act. The most important example is writers cramp. It is because of the habitual use of one set of muscles and their repetitive use. The symptoms are local pain in the muscle concerned, …

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Torsion Dystonia

Torsion Dystonia has been defined as a syndrome characterized by sustained involuntary movements causing torsion, twisting and repetitive movements resulting in bizarre or abnormal postures of the limb and trunk. Depending on the part of body affected, Dystonia may be focal (affecting single body part) segmental (two or more body …

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Myotonia congenita (Thomsen’s disease)

Myotonia congenita (Thomsen’s disease) is a rare hereditary disease which occurs in autosomal dominant form and is characterized by prolonged tonic contraction and delayed relaxation of muscles which is noticeable at the beginning and end of activity. The disease is usually observed in childhood but in many it shows up in …

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Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a disease of young children and adults caused by measles virus or a virus very closely related to it. The disease is more frequent in boys as compared to girls and generally starts in patients below the age of 10. It has insidious onset with a …

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Cerebral Palsy – features, diagnosis and treatment

Cerebral palsy has been defined as “persistent and non-progressive disorder of posture and movement due to an insult sustained by the developing brain”. Developmental and genetic factors are responsible in large percentage of cases (90%) while only 10% of cases are due to intra partum damage. It is a developmental …

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Spina Bifida & Aperta (spine defects)

Spina Bifida is one of the commonest developmental anomaly of the spinal cord in which there is failure of fusion of the neural tube to close perfectly and to separate completely from the surface ectoderm. It is associated with a defect in the closure of the bony vertebral canal and is …

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Atalantoaxial dislocation

Atalantoaxial dislocation may be congenital due to abnormal development (non-fusion of odontoid with the axis, agenesis of odontoid or transverse ligament of the atlas) or acquired following trauma like sudden flexion of the neck or may follow vertebral tuberculosis, rheumatid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. In the atlanto axial joint, the odontoid …

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Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome constitutes fusion of bodies of some crevical vertebrae or their spines with or without other skeletal abnormalities. The neurological abnormalities are attributed to other abnormality of the skeleton such as hemivertebrae, kyphoscoliosis. There is maldevelopment of neuraxis or nuclear agenesis. Clinically patient has short neck, low hair line …

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