Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a chronic autoimmune mediated inflammatory disease of the thyroid which generally involves females in the age group of 40- 50 years. There is diffuse enlargement of the gland which may be firm and sometimes rubbery to hard in consistency. Sometimes the gland enlarges asymmetrically with the pyramidal lobe… Continue Reading Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (lymphadenoid or autoimmune thyroiditis)

Autoimmune disorders – An agent capable of stimulating immune response is known as antigen. It may be a protein, polysaccharide or a complex lipid. There are two kinds of immune responses. Humoral immune response involved in the production of antibodies and cellular immunity in which incompetent cells react directly against… Continue Reading Autoimmune disorders or diseases

Polymyositis is a immune mediated disorder of unknown aetiology. It is characterized by proximal muscular weakness and inflammatory and degenerative lesions of the striated muscles. When it is accompanied by skin lesions, it is called dermatomyositis. It is not a very common disease and mainly involves adults in the age… Continue Reading Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis

Polyarteritis nodosa is an uncommon connective tissue disorder, characterized by involvement of small and medium sized arteries. There is necrotizing vasculitis with polymorphonuclear infiltration, necrosis and aneursymal dilatation of the vessel wall. The involvement of vessels is widespread and involves major organs except pulmonary vessels. It is a rare disease which… Continue Reading Polyarteritis nodosa

Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder of connective tissue with multi-system involvement and usually proceeds by remissions and relapses. It may begin insidiously or acutely and subacutely. Many cases present with arthralgia for months before characteristic rashes appear and suspicion about the disease is entertained. Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE)… Continue Reading Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE)

Connective Tissue Disorders are a group of disorders which are characterized by arthralgia, arthritis, myositis, raynauds phenomenon and skin lesions. There is multi system involvement with fibrinoid degeneration of connective tissue. Most Connective Tissue Disorders are common in women and these include systemic lupus erythematosis and Sjogren’s syndrome while in men vasculatides… Continue Reading Connective Tissue Disorders

It is a chronic progressive inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, distinguished by the involvement of sacroiliac joints, synovial and spinal joints and the adjacent soft tissues. There may be associated involvement of peripheral joints and extra-articular structures. It is often referred to as rheumatoid spondylitis (Bambo spine). The disease is… Continue Reading Ankylosing spondylitis (marie-strupell disease)

Lumbar spondylosis comprises degenerative disorder of the lumbo sacral region of the spine and is referred to as lumbago, sciatica or prolapse intravertebral disc (PID). There is intervertebial disc degeneration osteophyte formation and pain in low back, radiating down to lower extremities. The spinal column is well adapted to various wears… Continue Reading Lumbar spondylosis

Spondylosis – Degenerative changes in the spine are commonest cause of diseases of spinal cord and nerve roots after the age of 50 years. Majority of elders have asymptomatic picture and diagnosis rests often on radiological studies. Degenerative changes in the spine predominantly in cervical and lumbar regions are associated… Continue Reading Spondylosis – etiology, features, diagnosis, treatment