Category Archives: Diseases & Conditions

Sjogrens syndrome

Sjogrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by triad of dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), dry month (xerostomia) and arthritis. It has been classified into primary where the disease occurs by itself and secondary when it is associated with other autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosis, polymyositis, scleroderma and Rheumatid arthritis etc. In the primary form,… Read More »

Goodpasture‘s syndrome

Goodpasture‘s syndrome constitutes triad of glomerulonephritis, Pulmonaty hemorrhage and antibody to basement membrane antigens. Its etiology is unknown. It affects people at any age. Patient generally presents with cough, breathing difficulty and haemoptysis. Anti-GBH antibodies react with an antigen in the glomerular basement membrane producing necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Rapidly progressive renal failure may occur. Circulating antibodies to… Read More »

Systemic lupus erythematosis

Systemic lupus erythematosis is one of the important autoimmune disorders which involve various systems in the body including kidneys. Its exact etiology is not known but genetic factors and abnormal immune responses have a role to play. Circulating immune complexes composed of a variety of endogenous antigens along with auto antibodies. DNA form major component of… Read More »

Autoimmune myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an acquired auto immune disorder of the myoneural junction resulting from attack of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors. The antibodies originate in thymus, reaching skeletal neuro muscular junctions via blood stream. The antibodies cause complement mediated damage at the neuro muscular junction producing functional blockage at the antibody binding sites. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis… Read More »

Immune Hemolytic Anemia

Auto Immune Hemolytic Anemia are acquired disorders where auto-antibodies develop against one’s own red blood cells and haemolysis results from their increased destruction. Auto immune haemolytic anemia are divided into warm or cold types depending which temperature the antibody binds itself to the red cell. Warm auto immune anemia occurs at all ages though more in… Read More »

Autoimmune Hepatitis Chronic Active

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease characterized by irresolving inflammation of the liver, a predominant pen portal. Hepatitis which generally involves young women who are well nourished with moon facies, acne, amenorrhea hirsuties, pigmentation and abdominal striae. Onset is insidious and patient may be asymptomatic for number of years. Patient is mildly jaundiced with hepatosplenomegaly.… Read More »

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (lymphadenoid or autoimmune thyroiditis)

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a chronic autoimmune mediated inflammatory disease of the thyroid which generally involves females in the age group of 40- 50 years. There is diffuse enlargement of the gland which may be firm and sometimes rubbery to hard in consistency. Sometimes the gland enlarges asymmetrically with the pyramidal lobe enlargement. Histologically there is infiltration… Read More »

Autoimmune disorders or diseases

Autoimmune disorders – An agent capable of stimulating immune response is known as antigen. It may be a protein, polysaccharide or a complex lipid. There are two kinds of immune responses. Humoral immune response involved in the production of antibodies and cellular immunity in which incompetent cells react directly against the foreign material. T and… Read More »

Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis

Polymyositis is a immune mediated disorder of unknown aetiology. It is characterized by proximal muscular weakness and inflammatory and degenerative lesions of the striated muscles. When it is accompanied by skin lesions, it is called dermatomyositis. It is not a very common disease and mainly involves adults in the age group of 30-55 years, females… Read More »

Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa is an uncommon connective tissue disorder, characterized by involvement of small and medium sized arteries. There is necrotizing vasculitis with polymorphonuclear infiltration, necrosis and aneursymal dilatation of the vessel wall. The involvement of vessels is widespread and involves major organs except pulmonary vessels. It is a rare disease which commonly manifests in adult age,… Read More »