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Diseases & Conditions

Cerebral Palsy – features, diagnosis and treatment

Cerebral palsy has been defined as “persistent and non-progressive disorder of posture and movement due to an insult sustained by the developing brain”. Developmental and genetic factors are responsible in large percentage of cases (90%) while only 10% of cases are due to intra partum damage. It is a developmental …

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Spina Bifida & Aperta (spine defects)

Spina Bifida is one of the commonest developmental anomaly of the spinal cord in which there is failure of fusion of the neural tube to close perfectly and to separate completely from the surface ectoderm. It is associated with a defect in the closure of the bony vertebral canal and is …

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Atalantoaxial dislocation

Atalantoaxial dislocation may be congenital due to abnormal development (non-fusion of odontoid with the axis, agenesis of odontoid or transverse ligament of the atlas) or acquired following trauma like sudden flexion of the neck or may follow vertebral tuberculosis, rheumatid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. In the atlanto axial joint, the odontoid …

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Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome constitutes fusion of bodies of some crevical vertebrae or their spines with or without other skeletal abnormalities. The neurological abnormalities are attributed to other abnormality of the skeleton such as hemivertebrae, kyphoscoliosis. There is maldevelopment of neuraxis or nuclear agenesis. Clinically patient has short neck, low hair line …

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Basilar invagination

Basilar invagination means invagination of upper part of the vertebral column into the posterior fossa along with the rim of the foramen magnum. As a result the upper part of cervical cord is stretched over the protecting odontoid peg. Clinically patient has low hairline, short neck and signs and symptoms of …

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Craniovertebral Anomalies of The Nervous System

Cranio vertebral anomalies of the nervous system may be congenital or acquired. These are known to occur at any age and in both the sexes and constitute more than half of all congenital anomalies. The aetiology of these malformations is not well understood but both genetic and environmental factors play …

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Platybasia

Platybasia is an abnormality of the base of the skull in which the angle between the basisphenoid and the basilar portion of the occipital bone is increased. In normal subjects it varies from 119° to 145° and angle more than this is abnormal. As such it is not known to produce …

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