Hereditary Ataxias are a group of degenerative disorders usually heredo familial but may be congenital or acquired. These usually manifest in young age and are characterized by degeneration of cerebellum, olives and ascending and descending tracts of spinal cord. The main features are unsteady gait; in coordination of limbs and intention… Continue Reading Hereditary Ataxias (Friedreich’s) – diagnosis, investigations, and treatment

Tumors of the spinal cord are divided into extradural and intradural. Intradural tumors are further subdivided into extramedullary (arising outside the spinal cord) and intramedullary (arising within the cord). Common extra medullary tumors are neurofibroma, meningiomas sarcomas, lipomas, chordomas and teratomas while intramedullgy tumours comprise of ependyomas, spongioblastothas medulloblastomas, oligodendrogliomas,… Continue Reading Tumors of the Spinal Cord

Inflammatory lesion of the spinal cord which involves both the grey and white matter is called myelitis. When there is transverse involvement of one or more spinal segments, it is called transverse myelitis and when it spreads upwards it is called ascending myelitis. Aetiology A number of diverse conditions both… Continue Reading Myelitis – investigations, diagnosis and prognosis

It refers to inflammation of the arachnoid membrane leading to fibrous thickening and adhesion formation which compresses upon the spinal nerve roots. Cysts may form containing cerebrospinal fluid. Rarely the adhesion bound down the spinal cord. Arachnoiditis usually follows operation on the spinal cord or after instillation of radio graphic… Continue Reading Spinal Arachnoiditis – symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Syringomyelia is a chronic disorder characterized pathologically by the formation of a cavity situated in relation to the central canal in the spinal cord and extending to the medulla (syringobulbia). The condition may be congenital or acquired. Both sexes are affected equally but males are more affected than females. Congenital syringomyelia… Continue Reading Syringomyelia – symptoms and treatment

Anaphylactic reaction is acute, life-threatening IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, provoked by variety of injected, inhaled or ingested foreign substances. Note that the term anaphylactic reaction denotes clinically similar reactions to certain agents e.g. radid-contrast dyes, which are not immunologically mediated. Causes Common precipitating agents for anaphylactic reaction are shown on many sites online,… Continue Reading Anaphylactic reaction

Complement deficiency are rarely congenital, seen more commonly as acquired defects due to — a) Deficient production e.g. in newborns, PEM and chronic liver diseases, b) Defective function e.g. in sickle cell disease, c) Increased consumption or loss e.g. in septicemia, bums, SLE and nephrotic syndrome. Clinical features Clinically, complement deficiency… Continue Reading Complement deficiency

In allergic rhinitis, there is inflation of the mucous membranes of the nose due to exposure to an inhaled allergenic trigger. Allergic rhinitis is becoming more common with increasing urbanization and industrialization. It is being considered as serious global health issue, affecting human productivity and quality of life.20-25 per cent… Continue Reading Allergic Rhinitis – causes, symptoms, treatment