Dehydration in children denotes loss of TBW from extracellular and! or intracellular compartments, due to reduced intake or more likely, excessive losses via urine, stools, lungs or skin. As these losses are predominantly from ECF compartment, ECF dehydration is dominates in early stages. ICE dehydration usually develops after redistribution of… Continue Reading Dehydration in children

Niacin deficiency – Niacin is a component of two important glycolytic enzymes — Nicotinaminde adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate, as well as a regulator of DNA synthesis and repair. Nutritionally, it is available as — a) Preformed niacin or nicotinic acid, mainly in non- vegetarian foods e.g. meat and fish;… Continue Reading Niacin deficiency – causes, diagnosis and treatment

Rickets is defined as failure of mineralization of the growing bones, which should not be confused with osteomalacia i.e. defective mineralization of mature bones, or osteoporosis i.e. de-mineralization of pre-mineralized bones. Rickets may be broadly divided into two categories Vitamin D deficiency or nutritional rickets, and Vitamin D-resistant or refractory… Continue Reading Rickets – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Vitamin E deficiency – Vitamin E is a group of natural fat-soluble compounds – ct-tocoferols. Physiology Vitamin E is an important anti-oxidant (free-radical scavenger) as well as involved in nucleic acid metabolism and stabilization of cellular membranes. It is widely distributed in vegetable oils,fats and nuts, specially those rich in polyunsaturated fatty… Continue Reading Vitamin E deficiency

The term autistic or pervasive development disorders denotes a spectrum of clinically similar disorders with variable severity, all characterized by a triad of  impaired social interaction, impaired verbal & nonverbal communication, and rigid, repetitive or obsessive behavior. While childhood Autistic spectrum disorder (Infantile autism) is the prototype of this spectrum,… Continue Reading Autistic spectrum disorder

Clinical spectrum of Protein energy malnutrition is a continuum, ranging from borderline growth delay to well-defined syndromes of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Within this spectrum, many other terms are used to denote clinical variations e.g. Prekwashiorkor, Marasmic kwashiorkor (MK), Nutritional dwarfism etc. Broadly, clinical presentations of Protein energy malnutrition may be divided into… Continue Reading Kwashiorkor and Marasmus

Diverticular disease of the colon is a digestive disease and it is also referred to a diverticulitis of the colon. This is due to the formation of pouch like structures referred to as diverticula on the outside of the colon. This is quite commonly found in people who eat unhygienic food… Continue Reading Diverticular disease of the colon – causes, diagnosis and treatment