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Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS)

It is now agreed that Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) should be started early in disease i.e. within 3-6 months of onset of symptoms when patient has persistent polyarticular synovitis, joint deformity and reduction in functional capacity. Traditionally patients are put on Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) when they fail to respond to NSAIDs. Now [...]

Neurological tests are some of the most common tests done throughout the world. Nervous system constitutes a major part of the body and its correct functioning is essential for the maintenance of quality of life. A number of disorders affect the mind, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, peripheral nerves and all associated parts of central, peripheral and [...]

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Antihistamines

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Antihistamines - There are two types of histamine antagonists namely H1 receptor antagonists (classical type) and H2 receptor antagonists (used in peptic ulcer). Only H1 receptor antagonists are described below and 112 receptor antagonists will be discussed along with other drugs used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. H1 antihistamines antagonists act by competitively blocking the histamine receptors. [...]

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Drugs used for the treatment of Hyperlipidemia are called Antihyperlipidemic. The aim of the treatment is to lower the concentration of VLDL and LDL and raise HDL. 1.  Antihyperlipidemic Drugs which Primarily Reduce Plasma Triglycerides i. Nicotinic acid (niacin, B3): It is a water soluble vitamin. It lowers plasma triglyceride levels. Vitamin B3 reduces the levels [...]

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Vaccines for children may be broadly classified as Essential (EPI) vaccines included in national immunization schedule – BCG, OPV, DPT, Measles and Hepatitis B, Recommended or Optional vaccines e.g. MMR, H. influenza B, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Varicella, Vaccine for selective use e.g. High-risk children: Pneumococci, Meningococci, influenza virus Post-exposure: Anti-rabies vaccine and Combination Vaccines & Newer vaccines. ESSENTIAL (EPI) Vaccines for [...]

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Typhoid vaccination are of three types that are Whole-cell inactivated vaccines, Live attenuated oral vaccine (Ty2 1 strain), and parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. However, only the polysaccharide vaccine is currently available in Asian countries. Contents: Each dose contains 25 mgIO.5 ml of capsular polysaccharide units (Vi antigen). Supply & storage: It is supplied as [...]

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Measles vaccine is available as a single disease vaccine or in combination with mumps and rubella. Contents: It is a live attenuated vaccine prepared from Edmonston-Zagreb or Schwarz strain, containing 1000 TCID50/dose. Supply & storage of Measles vaccine: It is available as single dose or multi- dose vial containing lyophilized powder, along with a diluent and should [...]

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Oral polio vaccine (OPV): Two types of polio vaccines are available – a live, oral, Sabin vaccine and an inactivated, parenteral Salk vaccine, named after their developers. In India, OPV is used under NIS. Contents – OPV is a live attenuated, polyvalent vaccine, containing three strains of virus – I, II, and III, in concentrations [...]

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BCG Vaccine (Bacillus Calmatte Guerin vaccine) is the oldest amongst currently used vaccines (earliest vaccine was small pox, used in 1798), named after its developing scientists – Leon Charles Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin (1921). Contents of BCG Vaccine: It is a live attenuated vaccine containing 0.1- 0.4 million viable bacilli per dose, In India, [...]

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HIB vaccination – HIB infection is one of the leading cause of pneumonia and meningitis in infants and toddlers, though the incidence declines with advancing age and uncommon beyond 5 years. Although considered as an essential vaccine by lAP for all children, high cost prohibits its inclusion in NIS. Currently, it is recommended as an [...]

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