Menstruation Menstruation is a relatively later feature of puberty and starts at the age of 12 to 14years. It continues more or less regularly throughout childbearing age, and stops usually at the age of 50 to 55 years (menopause). Clinical features Regularity The menstrual cycle is of 28+or- 2 days.… Continue Reading What is Menstruation – its clinical features & symptoms

What is Puberty? This is the period of 12-14 years of age in which the individual becomes functionally capable of reproduction. The start of the ovarian activity and production of the ovarian hormones bring it about. The time of onset of puberty is variable according to race, family and environment.… Continue Reading Puberty in girls – its advent, physical & psychological changes

Early (Presenting) Complications of PEM: a) Infections include Common like ARI, Diarrhea, TB, helminthiasis. Severe Gram —ye sepsis, septic shock, DIC and Opportunistic Candidiasis b) Hypothermia c) Metabolic Hypoglycemia Hypocalcaemia Hypomagnesemia d) Fluid & electrolyte imbalance Dehydration Hypokalemia Hypernatremia e) Lactose intolerance f) Severe anemia & other nutrient deficiencies g)… Continue Reading Complications of PEM

PEM Management: Depending on the severity, PEM may be managed at home, nutritional rehabilitation centers, or hospital. Hospitalization is indicated in cases with severe PEM, life-threatening complications, severe anorexia and refusal to accept oral feeds, emotionally deprived or neglected child, and failure of domiciliary treatment. PEM Management aims towards diagnosis… Continue Reading PEM Management

Balanced diet for children is the ‘diet containing variety of foods in such quantities and proportions, which fulfills the needs for all essential nutrients, necessary to maintain optimal health and growth. Principles: General characteristics of a balanced diet for children, based on dietary goals from various sources (Prudent diet; WHO)… Continue Reading Balanced diet for children

Weaning (Complementary feeding) may be defined as “gradual introduction of semi-solids and solids in baby’s diet apart from breast milk, to meet their growing demands, usually at 4-6 months.” Note that weaning is a complementary process and not the discontinuation of Breast feeding, which should continue as long as possible.… Continue Reading What is weaning & when is it required