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Baby Feeding

Complications of PEM

Early (Presenting) Complications of PEM: a) Infections include Common like ARI, Diarrhea, TB, helminthiasis. Severe Gram —ye sepsis, septic shock, DIC and Opportunistic Candidiasis b) Hypothermia c) Metabolic Hypoglycemia Hypocalcaemia Hypomagnesemia d) Fluid & electrolyte imbalance Dehydration Hypokalemia Hypernatremia e) Lactose intolerance f) Severe anemia & other nutrient deficiencies g) …

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PEM Management

PEM Management: Depending on the severity, PEM may be managed at home, nutritional rehabilitation centers, or hospital. Hospitalization is indicated in cases with severe PEM, life-threatening complications, severe anorexia and refusal to accept oral feeds, emotionally deprived or neglected child, and failure of domiciliary treatment. PEM Management aims towards diagnosis …

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Balanced diet for children

Balanced diet for children is the ‘diet containing variety of foods in such quantities and proportions, which fulfills the needs for all essential nutrients, necessary to maintain optimal health and growth. Principles: General characteristics of a balanced diet for children, based on dietary goals from various sources (Prudent diet; WHO) …

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What is weaning & when is it required

Weaning (Complementary feeding) may be defined as “gradual introduction of semi-solids and solids in baby’s diet apart from breast milk, to meet their growing demands, usually at 4-6 months.” Note that weaning is a complementary process and not the discontinuation of Breast feeding, which should continue as long as possible. …

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Top feeding – Other than breast milk

Top feeding means feeding of milks other than the breast milk in early infancy, should be strictly discouraged. However, it may be necessary in rare instances of true lactation failure, maternal death/serious sickness, or any absolute/relative contraindication for Breast feeding. Top feeding may be loosely classified as exclusive top-feeding, or …

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Breast feeding problems

Common Breast feeding problems may be broadly divided into three categories I) breast and nipple problems, II) partial or complete lactation failure, and III) Breast feeding problems in special situations like sick mother, sick baby or working mother. I) Breast feeding problems & nipple problems are very common and often …

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Physiology of lactation

Physiology of lactation – Anatomically, the breast is made up of glandular tissue, supporting tissue and fat. There are 20-25 alveoli in each breast, each lined by epithelial cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. Milk is secreted in alveoli by epithelial cells and pushed forward by contraction of myoepithelial cells. …

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Advantages of breast feeding

BM is species-spec jfic i.e. quantitatively and qualitatively most appropriate for human baby. Apart from nutritional superiority, Advantages of breast feeding are many for the baby, mother, family and even to the community, Nutritional superiority in advantages of breast feeding BM is easily digestible and contains all essential nutrients in …

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Essential Nutrients in children

Essential Nutrients are the active principles in diet, each with various functions and metabolic patterns. Essential Nutrients may be classified as — a) Macro nutrients or proximate principles like proteins, fats and carbohydrates. b) Micro-nutrients like Vitamins and minerals. Proteins, which constitute —20% of body weight, are important source of …

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Nutritional Requirements

Nutritional Requirements is a dynamic process to supply adequate nourishment for survival, growth & development, repair and creation of future reserves. Weight-wise, nutritional requirements of children are relatively higher than in adults due to active growth, building of stores, higher basal metabolic rate and more pronounced physical activity. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS …

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