HIB vaccination – HIB infection is one of the leading cause of pneumonia and meningitis in infants and toddlers, though the incidence declines with advancing age and uncommon beyond 5 years. Although considered as an essential vaccine by lAP for all children, high cost prohibits its inclusion in NIS.
Currently, it is recommended as an optional vaccine for all affording children as well as essential for high-risk children with splenic dysfunction e.g. splenectomy, sickle cell disease, nephrotic syndrome etc.
HIB vaccine is also available as a combination vaccine with DPT (quadrivalent) or DPT÷HBV (pentavalent).
This vaccination are conjugated vaccines, containing a purified polysaccharide component of the organism, conjugated with a carrier protein e.g. mutant diphtheria or tetanus toxin to boost its immunogenicity (polysaccharides are poor antigens).
Depending on the polysaccharide component and carrier protein, four types of HIB vaccines are available – HbOC, PRP-T, PRP-D and PRO-OMP. Of these, first two types are currently available in India, both being equally effective and safe.
Supply & storage
Both are lyophilized vaccines, supplied as single-dose (10 .tg/0.5ml) vials with diluent, to be reconstituted just before the use. It should be stored at 2-8°C.
Dosage: 0.5 ml TM or SC, after reconstitution.
Schedule for HIB immunization varies according to the age, as follows —
2-6 month : 3 doses at 6, 10, 14 weeks> Booster at 15-18 months
6-12 month: 2 doses 1 months apart> Booster after 1 year
>12 month : Single dose> No Booster.
HIB vaccination beyond 5 years is not justified due to rarity of HIB infection, except in high-risk children.
Protective value: 95-100%
Side effects are uncommon except mild fever and local reaction. Contraindications is none, though dose of HIB vaccination should be deferred during acute severe febrile illness.