Meningioma brain tumor is the second most common brain tumor known to mankind. This is a benign brain tumor which arises from arachnoid cells which penetrate the dura to form arachnoid villi which project into the dural venous sinuses. Common sites are para sagittal region, intra cranial venous sinuses, olfactory groove of the ethmoid and circle of sinuses around the sella turcica.
The causes of this tumor is still unknown. Those who undergo radiation of scalp tend to have higher risk of acquiring it. The survivors of the fatal Atomic bombing in Hiroshima were likely to develop Meningioma brain tumor. The more closer they were to the bombed site, the more they were at risk. Another cause could be the dental X-rays. Frequent exposure to dental X-rays can increase the risk of this tumor.
The tumor is benign in nature, generally single and is in the form of an irregular lobulated growth. However, small percentage of these tumors are Malignant. Many times a meningioma is detected on post mortem. Because of the slow expansion of the tumor it may remain asymptomatic for a long time. Depending on its location neurological signs vary. These range from seizure, Para presis, cranial nerve palsies to gait disorders.
A distinctive feature of meningioma is hyperostosis of bone at the site of growth. The tumor may invade the overlying bone, resulting in absorption of bone and new bone formation. This may result in a clinical sign ‘BOSSING OF SKULL’. A bruit may be heard at the site of the growth.
Treatment depends on the site of the meningioma. Intraventricular or parasagittal tumors are generally re-sectable. For malignant forms of Meningioma brain tumor, radiation is employed.
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