Four Methods of Disease Transmission that are of dental concern
1. Personal contact—Direct contact between two people, with one being infected with an active pathogen.
2. Carrier contact—Direct contact with a carrier of the pathogen who doesn’t exhibit signs or symptoms of disease.
3. Droplet infection—Pathogens spread by talking, sneezing, breathing, coughing, and through handpiece spray, i.e. water from handpiece deflected from patient’s mouth.
4. Indirect transmission, or cross-contamination—Pathogens transmitted by dirty hands, instruments, or articles contaminated with blood, saliva, or body fluids.
Universal Precautions for avoiding Methods of Disease Transmission
The term Universal Precautions refers to all the methods, steps, and techniques used to reduce the chance of infection or cross-infection in the dental office. Strict adherence to Universal Precautions, minimize risk of infection to all dental professionals and patients.
The guidelines for the universal precautions for avoiding Methods of Disease Transmission involve following:
• The use of personal protective equipments.
• Proper disposal of contaminated waste and the use of protective barriers.
• The use of proper hand-washing techniques.
• Disinfection and sterilization procedures.