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Periodontal Surgery

Periodontal Surgery – Specialized surgical instruments are utilized in periodontal surgery. Surgical instruments and materials may be classified in the following manner: • Excisional and incisional instruments • Surgical curettes and sickles • Periosteal elevators • Surgical chisels and hoes • Surgical ifies • Scissors and nippers • Pocket-puncturing forceps …

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Periodontal Instruments

Periodontal Instruments – As previously mentioned, plaque with its bacterial by-products plays the key role in initiating the periodontal disease process. Calculus and overhanging restorations provide places for plaque to accumulate on the tooth and in the sulcus. DEBRIDEMENT PROCESS The debridement process involves the removal of calculus, plaque, and …

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Periodontal Conditions

Periodontal Conditions – Periodontics is the field of dentistry which deals with the tissues that surround the tooth (pen., from the Greek word meaning around). The tissues involved include the gingiva, tooth surface (especially the cementum), alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament. TISSUES OF THE PERIODONTIUM The periodontium is the …

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Endodontic Procedures

Endodontic Procedures – Root canal therapy (RCT) is treatment of disease inside an individual tooth. The idea is to clear up the infection and then to replace the removed pulp with a tightly sealed filling so that the infection won’t reoccur. Two to three appointments typically necessary for root canal …

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Endodontic Instruments

Endodontic Instruments are generally made of carbon or steel, however recently NiTi instruments, made up of titanium and of Nickel, are introduced in the field of Endodontics. In addition of mechanical manipulation during the endodontic procedures, the Endodontic Instruments are supposed to be able to withstand sterilization in the autoclave. …

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Endodontic Diagnostic Methods

The proper diagnosis of any diseased condition with the help of application of knowledge to gauge and correlate the various symptoms and judicious use of various examination techniques and aids, is of paramount importance for successful completion of the treatment. The accurate diagnosis is always the first step of the …

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Dental Anesthesia

TOPICAL ANESTHESIA Topical Dental Anesthesia is that type of anesthesia that is manually applied to mucous membranes or abraded skin to obtain the desired effect of surface numbing. In dentistry, the most common site of application is the mucous membranes of the mouth. PURPOSE Topical Dental Anesthesia are primarily used …

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Dental General Anesthesia

Dental General Anesthesia is a state of reversible unconsciousness of the central nervous system resulting in total analgesia and amnesia. GUIDELINES Some specific requirements, which must be met in order to legally and properly perform a procedure under the influence of a Dental General Anesthesia, are listed below: 1. The …

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Epinephrine in Dentistry

The gland in body called the adrenal medulla, produces epinephrine. Its job is to stimulate the central nervous system when the body encounters Stress, fear, and excitement. This results in a faster pulse, higher blood pressure, increased heart force, and the burning of carbohydrates for energy. Epinephrine is considered to …

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Dental Antibiotics

Dental Antibiotics – An antibiotic is defined as a chemical substance derived from naturally occurring substances such as fungi, mushrooms, and soil bacteria which has the ability to destroy, inhibit, or slow the growth of bacteria, parasites, or fungi in the treatment of infectious diseases. Penicillin and erythromycin are the …

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Radiographic errors

Radiographic errors – There are three major areas in which incorrect procedures cause errors: 1. Projection. How the X-ray source is positioned in relation to the film. 2. Exposure. How films are positioned in relation to the teeth and the collimator. 3. Processing. How the film is developed. Some of …

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Radiographic processing

Radiographic processing – Three methods are used to process radiographs:Instant or chairside, automatic (machine) processing, and manual processing. (1) Instant or Chairside Developing The instant or chair side developing method uses a special chemical formula and apparatus to bring out the latent image. It enables the dentist to perform a …

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Advantages of breast feeding

BM is species-spec jfic i.e. quantitatively and qualitatively most appropriate for human baby. Apart from nutritional superiority, Advantages of breast feeding are many for the baby, mother, family and even to the community, Nutritional superiority in advantages of breast feeding BM is easily digestible and contains all essential nutrients in …

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Essential Nutrients in children

Essential Nutrients are the active principles in diet, each with various functions and metabolic patterns. Essential Nutrients may be classified as — a) Macro nutrients or proximate principles like proteins, fats and carbohydrates. b) Micro-nutrients like Vitamins and minerals. Proteins, which constitute —20% of body weight, are important source of …

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Nutritional Requirements

Nutritional Requirements is a dynamic process to supply adequate nourishment for survival, growth & development, repair and creation of future reserves. Weight-wise, nutritional requirements of children are relatively higher than in adults due to active growth, building of stores, higher basal metabolic rate and more pronounced physical activity. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS …

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