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Stab wound analysis in forensics

A stab wound is produced when force is delivered along the long axis of a narrow or pointed object, such as knife, dagger, nail, needle, spear, arrow, screw driver, etc. into the depths of the body. It is deeper than its length and width on skin. This can occur by …

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Algor mortis

The Algor Mortis (chill of death or cooling of dead body) is a complex process, which does not occur at the same rate throughout the body. After stoppage of circulation, convectional transport of heat inside the body stops. The postmortem rate of heat production by anaerobic glycolysis is very low. …

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Vagal inhibition

Vagal inhibition is condition that causes sudden death to occur within seconds or a minute or two due to minor trauma or relatively simple and harmless peripheral stimulation. Pressure on the baroreceptors situated in the carotid sinuses, carotid sheaths, and the carotid body (located in the internal carotid artery just above …

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Somatic death

Somatic death is the complete and irreversible stoppage of the circulation, respiration and brain functions (Bishop’s tripod of life), but there is no legal definition of death. The question of death is important in resuscitation and organ transplantation. As long as circulation of oxygenated blood is maintained to the brain stem, …

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Brain stem death

Brain Stem  is where the cerebrum may be intact, though cut off functionally by the stem lesion. The loss of the vital centers that control respiration, and of the ascending reticular activating system that sustains consciousness, cause the victim to be irreversibly comatose and incapable of spontaneous breathing. This can …

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Human dissection in forensics

Human dissection plays an important role in the medical science, especially in identifying the cause of death of an individual. The results of this play an important role in forensic science. Today, with the help of latest technology, human dissection of body parts has become much simpler, yet very efficient. …

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Air embolism in human autopsy

If air embolism is suspected while doing human autopsy, the head should be opened first and the surface vessels of the brain examined for gas bubbles, which must be prominent and definite, but not segmental breakup of the blood in the vessels with collapsed segments between. Care should be taken …

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Human autopsy and its procedure

Human Autopsy or necropsy means postmortem examination of a body. In every case the autopsy must be complete, all the body cavities should be opened, and every organ must be examined, because evidence contributory to the cause of death may be found in more than one organ. Partial autopsies have …

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Forensic dentistry

Forensic dentistry deals with the science of dentistry to aid in the administration of justice, Dental identification depends mainly upon comparison between records of the missing persons and the findings in the bodies in relation to Restorative work, Unusual features and Comparison of ante-mortem with postmortem X-rays. The following particulars should …

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Human bite in forensics

Human bite is usually semicircular or crescentic, caused by the front teeth (incisors and canines), with a gap at either side due to the separation of upper and lower jaw. The teeth may cause clear, separate marks or form a continuous or intermittently broken line. Bite marks may be abrasions, …

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Hair analysis in forensics

Hair analysis in forensics – Trichology is the study of hair. It grows at the rate of 0.4 mm/day and nails at 0.1 mm/day. The examination of the it is undertaken to find out: Is it Hair or is it Some other Fiber? It consists of bulb or root and a …

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Body Scars in forensics

The scars are fibrous tissue covered by epithelium without hair follicles, sweat glands or pigment, produced from the healing of a wound. Injury to the dermis produces it, while superficial injuries involving only the epidermis do not produce a scar. They are permanent. Examination Good lighting is essential. The description …

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Tattoo marks – complications, erasure and importance

Tattoo marks are designs made in the skin by multiple small puncture wounds with needles or an electric vibrator dipped in coloring matter. The dyes commonly used are Indian ink, carbon (black), cinnabar or vermilion (mercuric sulphide) red, chromic acid (green), indigo, cobalt, prussian blue (ferric ferrocyanide), ultramarine (blue). Techniques …

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Facial reconstruction in Forensics

Facial reconstruction in Forensics – In 1935 in Ruxton case, the Skull photo superimposition technique was applied by Brash and Glaister in 1935 in Ruxton case. This technique determines whether the skull in question is the same as the skull of the person who is in the photograph. The photograph need …

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