Development It starts in the 3rd week of the intrauterine life and is completed by the 16th week of the intrauterine life. Membranous labyrinth develops from the otic capsule. This differentiates into various structures, like sensory end organ of hearing and equilibrium. Bony labyrinth develops from the otic capsule. This… Continue Reading Inner Ear Anatomy- Development and Relationship

EAR DEVELOPMENT Ear has a very complex source of development. The sound conductive apparatus develops from the branchial apparatus whereas the sound perceptive apparatus develops from the ectodermal otocyst (pars otica). Because of this dual source of origin the developmental anomaly that produced commonly affects either the sound conductive system… Continue Reading Embryology of the Ear

Sjogrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by triad of dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), dry month (xerostomia) and arthritis. It has been classified into primary where the disease occurs by itself and secondary when it is associated with other autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosis, polymyositis, scleroderma and Rheumatid arthritis… Continue Reading Sjogrens syndrome

Goodpasture‘s syndrome constitutes triad of glomerulonephritis, Pulmonaty hemorrhage and antibody to basement membrane antigens. Its etiology is unknown. It affects people at any age. Patient generally presents with cough, breathing difficulty and haemoptysis. Anti-GBH antibodies react with an antigen in the glomerular basement membrane producing necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Rapidly progressive renal failure… Continue Reading Goodpasture‘s syndrome

Systemic lupus erythematosis is one of the important autoimmune disorders which involve various systems in the body including kidneys. Its exact etiology is not known but genetic factors and abnormal immune responses have a role to play. Circulating immune complexes composed of a variety of endogenous antigens along with auto antibodies.… Continue Reading Systemic lupus erythematosis

Myasthenia gravis is an acquired auto immune disorder of the myoneural junction resulting from attack of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors. The antibodies originate in thymus, reaching skeletal neuro muscular junctions via blood stream. The antibodies cause complement mediated damage at the neuro muscular junction producing functional blockage at the antibody… Continue Reading Autoimmune myasthenia gravis

Auto Immune Hemolytic Anemia are acquired disorders where auto-antibodies develop against one’s own red blood cells and haemolysis results from their increased destruction. Auto immune haemolytic anemia are divided into warm or cold types depending which temperature the antibody binds itself to the red cell. Warm auto immune anemia occurs at… Continue Reading Immune Hemolytic Anemia

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease characterized by irresolving inflammation of the liver, a predominant pen portal. Hepatitis which generally involves young women who are well nourished with moon facies, acne, amenorrhea hirsuties, pigmentation and abdominal striae. Onset is insidious and patient may be asymptomatic for number of years. Patient… Continue Reading Autoimmune Hepatitis Chronic Active