Recent Posts

Child Guidance Clinic

Child Guidance Clinic (CGC) is a specialized health service, based on an integrated and multidisciplinary approach to deal with the behavioral problems of children and adolescents, who are not fully adjusted to their environment. The first child guidance clinic was started in Chicago in 1909. The team: Child guidance is …

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – diagnosis, management and treatment

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children, characterized by three core-groups of age-inappropriate symptoms hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness; leading to secondary problems like poor scholastic performance, conduct disorders, emotional and social maladjustment etc. While some children have all three components of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, …

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Psychosomatic Disorders in children

Psychosomatic Disorders – Although emotional stress is a known precipitating/ exacerbating event for many medical illnesses e.g. asthma, diarrhea or epilepsy; two specific and important psychosomatic illnesses are conversion disorder and Munchausen syndrome by proxy, discussed here. Conversion disorder denotes loss or alteration of physical functioning without a demonstrable illness. …

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Anxiety Disorders in children

Anxiety Disorders – Anxiety/fear is a normal part of development, beginning with stranger’s fear by 6-8 months of age. The term anxiety disorders or neurosis denotes ‘disproportionately excessive anxiety to a real event or undue anxiety to an imaginary cause’. Common anxiety disorders include — a) Phobia e.g. school phobia …

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Behavioral disorders

Behavioral disorders – Development of behavior in children is a complex process, influenced by inherent temperament as well as exogenous influences like family and social environment.  Consequently, all children, like all adults, have unique behavioral traits, usually within the acceptable limits of deviance. It is important to differentiate these benign …

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Disruptive behavior disorder – symptoms, management, diagnosis and treatment

Disruptive behavior disorder – Children are expected to behave within the socially acceptable limits, which is determined by their age, social norms, training/moral standards and parent-child relationship. Negativism i.e. opposition to parental instructions is a normal phase of development during 18- 36 months of age, leading to anger/frustration. By 4-5 years, …

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Disorders in children

All children acquire one or more habits at some point of their development. The term disorders in children denotes unusual persistence of habits, which interfere child’s physical, emotional and social functioning. Most of these disorders indicate a physical expression of underlying emotional tension (tension-discharge phenomena). Althougn the list of disorders in children …

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Vegetative disorder

Vegetative disorder may be defined as ‘abnormalities of vegetative functions e.g. eating, evacuation or sleep, either due to delayed maturation of bodily functions or abnormal psychosocial development’. However, some of them may have underlying organic etiology that needs to be excluded. Pica, enuresis and encopresis are common Vegetative disorder in …

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Anticoagulated

To keep the blood in a fluid state that is anticoagulated, the coagulating as well as anticoagulant factors are delicately balanced in the circulating blood. There may occur spontaneous bleeding or intravascular thrombosis due to any disturbance in this delicately balanced system. Blood coagulation means the conversion of blood to …

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Plasma expanders

Plasma expanders – Shock is a state of acute circulatory failure. It is mainly due to reduced blood volume (hypovolemia). It is, therefore, essential to restore the intravascular blood volume as quickly as possible by intravenous fluid therapy. The various types of fluids used for replacement are: 1. Whole blood …

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Thrombolytic therapy

Thrombolytic therapy is used to dissolve clot in vivo. To break thrombi, these drugs degrade fibrin by activating plasminogen to form plasmin. 1. Streptokinase: It is used in Thrombolytic therapy and is a protein and is synthesized by beta-haemolytic streptococci. It is employed in the treatment of life-threatening venous thrombosis …

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Hearing Impairment

Hearing impairment is the essential sensory pathway for development of speech & language and presence of even mild hearing loss in early childhood may affect speech, language, learning and psychosocial development. Incidence: Moderate to severe hearing loss is estimated to be present in 0.1-0.5% children, apart from a large number …

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Learning disorders

Learning disorders or disabilities (Minimum brain dysfunction syndrome) include a large group of low severity-high incidence disorders, all characterized by ‘difficulties in coping with academic skills (learning) due to problems related to attention span, speech, language or motor co-ordination, which can not be explained by intelligence quotient, visual and hearing …

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Mental retardation in children

Mental retardation in children is defined as the ‘sub-average intellectual functioning resulting from any insult during the period of development, co-existing with limitations in at least two of the following 10 areas of adaptive behaviors – communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, …

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Film radiography

Film radiography – Each polyester dental film base is covered by an emulsion of silver halide crystals suspended in a gelatin with a special adhesive holding them to the base. These crystals are sensitive to X-rays and change  when struck by radiation. In areas where all the radiation strikes the …

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