It is an acute infectious disease caused by powerful exotoxin. ‘Tetanospasmin’ produced by clostridium tetani and is characterized by increased muscle tone, rigidity and tonic spasm of the masseter and skeletal muscles. Tetanus occurs when a wound (big or small) or even a scratch is contaminated by the organism especially… Continue Reading Tetanus – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Rabies (hydrophobia) is an acute viral disease characterized by inflammation of the central nervous system with fatal results. It is primarily a disease of animals and all warm blooded are susceptible to the infection. The main sources of infection in man are dogs, monkeys, cats and wild animals. The Rabies (hydrophobia) disease… Continue Reading Rabies (hydrophobia) – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Q fever is an acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia burnetti which is smaller than true rickettsia. The disease is spread to humans by handling of infected material as well as by inhalation of infected dust and even by drinking infected milk. It is found mainly in persons handling live stock… Continue Reading Q fever – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Trench fever is an uncommon disease transmitted from man to man by the body louse. The organism is Rickettsia quintania. The incubation period is 10 to 30 days and onset is sudden characterized by headache giddiness, pain in the body and a rapidly rising temperature. There is associated chill and sweating.… Continue Reading Trench fever – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Rocky mountain spotted fever is an acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted to humans by ticks from infected rodents. The disease is mainly prevalent in the Rocky Mountains of America. The same arthropod vector is responsible for other tick borne disease is India, Africa, Central Asia and Far East.… Continue Reading Rocky mountain spotted fever – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Brill-zinsser disease is recrudescence of epidemic typhus which occurs years after the original disease. Organisms are the same (R. prowazekii). The clinical picture resembles epidemic typhus. The Weil-Felix reaction is negative, but diagnosis is established by complement fixation, microscopic agglutination and immuno fluorescent antibody reactions. Treatment is on same lines as… Continue Reading Typhus disease (brill-zinsser) – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis) is an acute infectious disease characterized by high temperature and lymphodenopathy. It is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) and is transmitted in humans through saliva by close contact and is often referred to as ‘Kissing disease’. Glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis) is of worldwide distribution involving mainly young adults.… Continue Reading Glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis) – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by all leptospiras irrespective of their specific serotypes. Leptospira are tightly coiled motile spirochaetcs and are broadly divided into two species – Leptospira Interrogans comprising of all pathogenic strains and Leptospira biflexa which consists of non-pathogenic strains. Of the various serotypes human infection is… Continue Reading Leptospirosis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Plague is disease which is widely prevalent all over the world but is more common in the subtropical region. It is primarily a disease of rodents (sylvitic plague) and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected rat flea (xenopsylla cheopis). Sporadic cases as well as epidemics of plague occur… Continue Reading Plague – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment