Recent Posts

Fingerprints and its study in forensic

Fingerprints are impressions of patterns formed by the papillary or epidermal ridges of the fingertips. The ridge patterns of fingers appear between 12 to 16 weeks of intrauterine life and the formation is completed by 24 weeks. At birth a fine pattern of ridges is seen on the skin of …

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Products liability

Products liability refers to the physical agent which caused the injury or death of the patient during treatment by the doctor. The injury or death of the patient may result from the unexpected byproduct of faulty, defective, or negligently designed medical or surgical instruments or inadequate operating instructions. In such …

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Contributory negligence

CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE Contributory negligence is any unreasonable conduct, or absence of ordinary care on the part of the patient, or his personal attendant, which combined with the doctor’s negligence, contributed to the injury complained of, as a direct, proximate cause and without which the injury would not have occurred. These …

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Medical confidentiality

Medical confidentiality It is an implied term of contract between the doctor and his patient. The doctor is obliged to keep secret; all that he comes to know concerning the patient in the course of his professional work. Everything said by a patient or his family members to a physician …

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Indian medical association

Functions of Indian medical association: Medical Register The Council maintains a register of medical practitioners, known as the Indian Medical Register. It contains the names of all persons who are enrolled on any State Medical Register. If the name of a person enrolled on a State Medical Register is removed from …

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Witness in forensic science

Witness in forensic science All persons are competent to testify unless they are prevented from understanding the questions put to them, or from giving rational answers to those questions, due to tender years or extreme old age or disease. Types: Witnesses are of two types: (1) Common, and (2) Expert. …

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Oral Evidence in forensic science

Oral Evidence in forensic science – It includes all statements which the Court permits, or which are required to be made before it by the witness, in relation to matters of fact under inquiry. “Fact” means: (1) any thing, state of things, or relation of things, capable of being perceived by …

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Medical Evidence in forensic science

Medical Evidence in forensic science means and includes: (1) all statements which the Court permits or requires to be made before it by witnesses, in relation to matters of fact under inquiry. (2) All documents produced for inspection of the Court. For the evidence to be accepted by the Courts, …

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Documentary evidence in forensic science

Documentary evidence in forensic science: It is of three types – Medical Certificates They refer to ill- health, insanity, age, death, etc. They are accepted in a Court of law, only when they are issued by a qualified registered medical practitioner. The certificate of ill-health should contain exact nature of …

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Glucocorticoids

The Glucocorticoids influence carbohydrate and protein metabolism whereas the mineralocorticoids affect water and electrolyte balance. Glucocorticoids enter target cells by diffusion and bind to specific receptors present in the cell nucleus. Thus they regulate protein synthesis by stimulating messenger RNA formation. Partly the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may be due …

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Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis process is the first line of immunological defense to engulf and digest foreign antigens and process them for presentation to  its specific cells. It is mediated by two different cell types i.e. circulatory phagocytes i.e. neutrophils and tissue phagocytes i.e. macrophages, which are derived from monocytes and populate tissues …

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Immunoglobulins

Immunoglobulins (IgG) or antibodies are serum proteins, produced by B cells, which a) inactivate, agglutinate antigens for phagocytosis, b) activate complement system for cytolysis. These immunoglobulins may be present on the surface of B- cells (surface immuno globulins) or secreted in extracellular medium (secretory immuno globulins). Depending on their properties and role …

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Antihistamines

Antihistamines – There are two types of histamine antagonists namely H1 receptor antagonists (classical type) and H2 receptor antagonists (used in peptic ulcer). Only H1 receptor antagonists are described below and 112 receptor antagonists will be discussed along with other drugs used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. H1 antihistamines antagonists act by …

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Exogenous (dietary) & Endogenous Lipids

Lipids are heterogeneous group of compounds and are two types, namely, exogenous lipids and endogenous lipids. These are related to fatty acids and are insoluble in water. However, these are soluble in ether and chloroform. These are of three types: a. Simple lipids: These are esters of alcohol and fatty …

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Lipoproteins & their types

Lipoproteins are spherical particles. They transport triglycerides and cholesterol esters through the plasma. Both are non-polar hydrophobic lipids. They form the core of it, which is surrounded by a hydrophilic surface coat of phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol and apoproteins. Due to hydrophilic surface coat, it becomes soluble in plasma and acts …

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