Recent Posts

Antihyperlipidemic drugs reduce Plasma Triglycerides & Cholesterol

Drugs used for the treatment of Hyperlipidemia are called Antihyperlipidemic. The aim of the treatment is to lower the concentration of VLDL and LDL and raise HDL. 1.  Antihyperlipidemic Drugs which Primarily Reduce Plasma Triglycerides i. Nicotinic acid (niacin, B3): It is a water soluble vitamin. It lowers plasma triglyceride levels. …

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Vaccines for children

Vaccines for children may be broadly classified as Essential (EPI) vaccines included in national immunization schedule – BCG, OPV, DPT, Measles and Hepatitis B, Recommended or Optional vaccines e.g. MMR, H. influenza B, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Varicella, Vaccine for selective use e.g. High-risk children: Pneumococci, Meningococci, influenza virus Post-exposure: Anti-rabies vaccine and Combination Vaccines & Newer …

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Typhoid vaccination

Typhoid vaccination are of three types that are Whole-cell inactivated vaccines, Live attenuated oral vaccine (Ty2 1 strain), and parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. However, only the polysaccharide vaccine is currently available in Asian countries. Contents: Each dose contains 25 mgIO.5 ml of capsular polysaccharide units (Vi antigen). Supply & …

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Measles vaccine

Measles vaccine is available as a single disease vaccine or in combination with mumps and rubella. Contents: It is a live attenuated vaccine prepared from Edmonston-Zagreb or Schwarz strain, containing 1000 TCID50/dose. Supply & storage of Measles vaccine: It is available as single dose or multi- dose vial containing lyophilized powder, along …

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Oral polio vaccine

Oral polio vaccine (OPV): Two types of polio vaccines are available – a live, oral, Sabin vaccine and an inactivated, parenteral Salk vaccine, named after their developers. In India, OPV is used under NIS. Contents – OPV is a live attenuated, polyvalent vaccine, containing three strains of virus – I, …

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Bcg vaccine and its side effects

BCG Vaccine (Bacillus Calmatte Guerin vaccine) is the oldest amongst currently used vaccines (earliest vaccine was small pox, used in 1798), named after its developing scientists – Leon Charles Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin (1921). Contents of BCG Vaccine: It is a live attenuated vaccine containing 0.1- 0.4 million viable …

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Water homeostasis

Water homeostasis – Total body water (TBW) contributes to 78% of body weight at birth, but declines rapidly due to physiological diuresis in newborns and growth of low-water adipose tissue in late infancy, to reach the adult level of —55-60% by one year of age. Post-pubertal females and obese persons have …

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Trace elements in Nutrition

Trace elements in nutrition are defined as ‘biologically important minerals, present in very small amounts (<250 mg/gm of matrix) in human body’. Minerals present in still smaller amounts (<100 ng/gm) are termed as ultra- trace elements. The role of trace elements in health and disease is being increasingly recognized in …

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Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency – Cobalamin is a cobalt-containing vitamin, essential for nucleic acid metabolism and myelin formation. (Cyancobalamin is the therapeutic preparation, used to treat Vitamin B1, deficiency). Widely present in animal sources, Vitamin B12 is absent in plant foods, but may be endogenously synthesized by colonic bacteria. Vitamin B12 absorption …

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HIB vaccination – contents, supply & storage, protection

HIB vaccination – HIB infection is one of the leading cause of pneumonia and meningitis in infants and toddlers, though the incidence declines with advancing age and uncommon beyond 5 years. Although considered as an essential vaccine by lAP for all children, high cost prohibits its inclusion in NIS. Currently, …

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DPT vaccine and its side effects

DPT vaccine (Triple vaccine) is a combination vaccine against three diseases – Diptheria, Tetanus and Pertusis. Currently, DPT is also Commercially available as combination vaccines with HBV and/or HIB vaccine. Two other related vaccines are – DT (devoid of pertusis component), and DTaP (containing only acellular component of pertusis bacilli). …

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Vitamin A deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), till recently, was the commonest cause of preventable blindness in Indian children. Although the prevalence of severe disease has markedly declined in recent years due to preventive supplementation programs, sub clinical Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a major public health problem, with an estimated prevalence …

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Vitamin c deficiency

Scurvy is well-defined acute manifestation of Vitamin C deficiency, though mild or sub clinical deficiency states may present with impaired wound healing, bleeding gums, mild anemia and increased susceptibility for infections. Physiology Vitamin C or Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, essential for synthesis of — a) normal collagen by …

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Amebiasis treatment

Amebiasis is a parasitic disease that is very common in developing countries. Some people in the United States of America also show signs of the disease, if they have been travelling to the developing countries in the past. On the other hand, immigrants from developing countries may also be infected …

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Medico legal aspects while providing medical treatments

The Medico legal aspects of any case must always be secondary to life saving treatment of the patient. It is advisable that the doctor should learn to look from the medico—legal standpoint upon such of his cases as are likely to become the subject matter of judicial Investigation. He should …

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