Motor neurone disease is the term applied to a group of degenerative disorders characterized pathologically by involvement of motor neurones of the spinal cord, medulla and motor cortex with sparing of peripheral nerves and sensory system. Involvement of cortical neurones gives rise to predominant upper motor neurone lesion while that of… Continue Reading Motor neurone disease

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) It is the commonest form of muscular dystrophy which is transmitted as X-linked recessive trait, occurring mainly in boys the females acting as carriers. Its incidence ranges from 3-5 per 100,000 live births per year. Gene for DMD has been identified. Duchene gene is located on… Continue Reading Muscular Dystrophy – Duchenne, Becker, Faclo Scapulohumeral, Limb gridle, Ocular

Polymyositis comprises of a number of conditions where muscles are damaged by a variety of pathological agents ranging from virus, toxic degenerative or to an autoimmune disorder. The term polymyositis refers to involvement of muscles while in dermatomyositis, there is in addition involvement of skin. All these conditions are now identified… Continue Reading Polymyositis – symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Chorea is a disorder of the nervous system characterized by brief, jerky, semi purposive, irregular and explosive movements of the limbs, fleeting from one limb to the other and later on involve the whole body. These movements are followed by muscular weakness and a variable degree of emotional involvement. Pathologically the… Continue Reading Chorea – symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

It is one of the commonest neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly and affects about 1% of the people above the age of 60 years and 4% people above the age of 40 years affecting both sexes equally. Parkinsons disease was described in 1817 by James Parkinson as a clinical syndrome… Continue Reading Parkinsons disease – symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Hereditary Ataxias are a group of degenerative disorders usually heredo familial but may be congenital or acquired. These usually manifest in young age and are characterized by degeneration of cerebellum, olives and ascending and descending tracts of spinal cord. The main features are unsteady gait; in coordination of limbs and intention… Continue Reading Hereditary Ataxias (Friedreich’s) – diagnosis, investigations, and treatment

Tumors of the spinal cord are divided into extradural and intradural. Intradural tumors are further subdivided into extramedullary (arising outside the spinal cord) and intramedullary (arising within the cord). Common extra medullary tumors are neurofibroma, meningiomas sarcomas, lipomas, chordomas and teratomas while intramedullgy tumours comprise of ependyomas, spongioblastothas medulloblastomas, oligodendrogliomas,… Continue Reading Tumors of the Spinal Cord

Inflammatory lesion of the spinal cord which involves both the grey and white matter is called myelitis. When there is transverse involvement of one or more spinal segments, it is called transverse myelitis and when it spreads upwards it is called ascending myelitis. Aetiology A number of diverse conditions both… Continue Reading Myelitis – investigations, diagnosis and prognosis

It refers to inflammation of the arachnoid membrane leading to fibrous thickening and adhesion formation which compresses upon the spinal nerve roots. Cysts may form containing cerebrospinal fluid. Rarely the adhesion bound down the spinal cord. Arachnoiditis usually follows operation on the spinal cord or after instillation of radio graphic… Continue Reading Spinal Arachnoiditis – symptoms, diagnosis and treatment