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Exhumation

Exhumation is the digging out of an already buried body from the grave. There is no time limit for exhumation in India. Autopsies are performed on exhumed bodies in two cases: In criminal cases, such as homicide, suspected homicide disguised as suicide or other types of death, suspicious poisoning, death …

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Collection of blood

Collection of blood – The cellular barrier of mucous and serous membranes breakdown after death, due to which substances in the stomach and intestine can migrate to the organs in the thorax and abdomen, causing false rise in the blood level. Before autopsy, 10 to 20 ml of blood can be …

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Post mortem report after forensic examination

Post mortem report – After completing the postmortem examination, a complete but concise post mortem report should be written in duplicate using carbon papers. One copy is sent to the investigating officer and another copy is retained for future reference. Autopsy report should contain a list of specimens and samples retained …

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Viscera preservation in forensics

Viscera should be preserved if death is suspected to be due to poisoning either by the police or the doctor, Deceased was intoxicated or used to drugs, Cause of death not found after autopsy, Death due to burns, Advanced decomposition and Accidental death involving driver of a vehicle or machine operator. The following must be …

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Psychological autopsy

Psychological autopsy is a set of postmortem investigative procedures that help ascertain and evaluate the role that physical and psychological factors play in the death of an individual, thus to determine the manner of death to as high a degree of certainty as possible. In some cases of suicide, police …

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Human rights commission’s recommendations on autopsy

The following is the brief account of the procedure to be carried out. The doctors who have access to the scene of death should : (1) Photograph the body. (2) Record body position. (3) Determine time of death. (4) Protect deceased’s hands with paper bags. (5) Examine the scene for …

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Autopsy of a body having aids and infections

Highly infectious diseases transmitted by direct contact or contact with infected materials, clothing, discharges, vomit, etc. are cholera, rabies, tetanus, anthrax, poliomyelitis, mumps, septicaemia, typhoid, tuberculosis, hepatitis B & C, diphtheria, C.S.F. meningitis, smallpox, plague, tick- borne encephalitis, equine encephalomyelitis, Tcell lymphotropic viruses I and II, and HIV. Patients with …

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Organ removal method in forensics

Organ removal involves the following techniques – Virchow’s technique: Organs are removed one by one. Cranial cavity is exposed first, followed by thoracic, cervical and abdominal organs. Rokitansky’s technique: It involves in situ dissection in part, combined with en block removal. Lettulle’s technique: Cervical, thoracic, abdominal and pelvic organs are …

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Autopsy procedure

External autopsy procedure Examination The external autopsy procedure examination will provide most of the substance of the report, where death occurred due to trauma. It is important in interpretation, e.g. in a case of a pedestrian involved in traffic accident, in which the vehicle involved has not been identified or …

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Some important factors in forensics

WOUNDS: Sometimes, the presence of wounds on the body may assist in connecting a suspected criminal with a given crime, e.g. a piece of skin adherent to a window glass may correspond with the wound on the thief, or rupture of fraenum of penis may be present in a person …

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Forensic hair analysis

Forensic hair analysis – Trichology is the study of hair. Hair grows at the rate of 0.4 mm/day and nails at 0.1 mm/day. The examination of the hair is undertaken to find out: (1) Is it Hair or is it Some other Fiber? Hair consists of bulb or root and a …

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Human stature

Human stature varies at different times of the day by one-and-half to two cm. It is less in the afternoon and evening due to the reduced elasticity of the inter vertebral discs and the longitudinal vertebral muscles. Both malnutrition and advancing years reduce stature. After the age of thirty, the …

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Development of a fetus

Development of a fetus – The term developing ovum is used for the first seven to ten days after conception, i.e., until the implantation occurs. It is called an ‘embryo’ from one week to the end of the second month, and later it is called ‘fetus’. It becomes an infant when …

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Age estimation in General

Age estimation in General: In the male, at about fourteen years, fine hair begins to appear on pubis, the testes become larger and firmer and the penis begins to enlarge. At about fifteen, hair is moderately grown on pubis, and it begins to grow in axilla. At about 16, hair …

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Medicolegal importance of age

Medicolegal importance of age: In medico-legal cases, the age of a person is determined by medical officer on requisition from the police officer or Magistrate. Written consent of the person should be taken. The following particulars should be noted. (1) Name, fathers name, age alleged by the person, sex, occupation, …

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