Anaphylactic reaction

Anaphylactic reaction is acute, life-threatening IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, provoked by variety of injected, inhaled or ingested foreign substances. Note that the term anaphylactic reaction denotes clinically similar reactions to certain agents e.g. radid-contrast dyes, which are not immunologically mediated. Causes Common precipitating agents for anaphylactic reaction are shown on many sites online, though the cause remains unidentified

Dehydration in children

Dehydration in children denotes loss of TBW from extracellular and! or intracellular compartments, due to reduced intake or more likely, excessive losses via urine, stools, lungs or skin. As these losses are predominantly from ECF compartment, ECF dehydration is dominates in early stages. ICE dehydration usually develops after redistribution of fluids. Etiology Acute Diarrhea or


The term autistic or pervasive development disorders denotes a spectrum of clinically similar disorders with variable severity, all characterized by a triad of  impaired social interaction, impaired verbal & nonverbal communication, and rigid, repetitive or obsessive behavior. While childhood Autistic spectrum disorder (Infantile autism) is the prototype of this spectrum, Asperger’s disorder is more common

Cystic teratoma

The Cystic teratoma is an encapsulated tumor that can be available in benign or malignant form. The histology of this tumor reveals the presence of tissue and organ component and it contains derivation of the three fundamental germ layers found in the human body. In most cases, it is easy to distinguish the three germ layers

Meningioma brain tumor

Meningioma brain tumor is the second most common brain tumor known to mankind. This is a benign brain tumor which arises from arachnoid cells which penetrate the dura to form arachnoid villi which project into the dural venous sinuses. Common sites are para sagittal region, intra cranial venous sinuses, olfactory groove of the ethmoid and circle of

Glioma (glioblastoma, astrocytomas, medulloblastoma, oligodendroglioma) brain tumor

Glioma brain tumors are derived from cells which constitute supporting tissue of the nervous system and constitute more than 50% of all neural tumors. They are divided pathologically into four grades. Grade IV gliomas are the most malignant. The most important of glioma encountered are Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas and oligodendroglioma. These are infiltrative tumors and their common locations


Acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis occurs sporadically and has almost the same clinical picture as of bacterial meningitis though the course generally is less fulminant. Aetiology The disease is caused by a filterable virus which has been recovered from the CSF of patients. It is an Arena virus which is an RNA virus seen in mice and monkeys. A

Syncope (fainting) – causes, symptoms and treatment

Syncope (or simply fainting) may be defined as transient loss of consciousness which comes suddenly, lasts for a short time and is due to diminished blood supply to the brain. The symptoms (fainting, vasovagal attacks) are produced as a result of disorder of circulation in which cardiac output is not sufficient to maintain normal cerebral blood

Bellini duct carcinoma – prognosis, symptoms and treatment

Bellini duct carcinoma is also known by the names tubulocystic or low grade collecting duct carcinoma. It is a rare kind of cancer (it is somewhat like kidney cancer) that originates in the kidney, that is in the duct of Bellini of kidney. The occurrence of this kind of cancer is pretty rare, accounting to just

Intracranial tumors (Brain tumors) – clinical features, investigations and treatment

Intracranial tumors (Brain tumors) or space occupying lesions of the brain account for an important part of all neoplasm’s of the body, their incidence ranging from 10-15% of all neoplasm’s of the body. These involve both sexes and can occur at all age groups though some primarily occur in childhood. Intracranial tumors (Brain tumors) are classified into primary

Encephalitis and its types

Encephalitis is a disease of Central nervous system which involves a number of neurotropic viruses and these produce number of conditions ranging from meningitis, encephalitis to myelitis etc. Some of the viruses may remain latent in the nervous system and get reactivated later. Most viruses have a phase of extra neural viral replication before involving the

Acute viral encephalitis – Diagnosis and treatment

Acute viral encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the nervous system where brain, brain stem or cerebellum is involved due to a virus; It may be primary or post infectious. Primary form occurs when there is direct invasion or replication of virus in the nervous system while post infectious follows either other viral infections or after

Kyasanur forest disease

Kyasanur forest disease has been first reported in Shimoga district of Westren Mysore in Southern India. It is caused by a flavivirus of group B arbovirus labeled as kyasanur forest disease virus. The disease is seen in people who visit the forest where monkeys are dying and there monkeys harbour the virus. Man is infected by the bite

Encephalitis lethargica – causes, diagnosis and treatment

Encephalitis lethargica made its first appearance in 1915 in the form of a wide spread epidemic and many epidemics of the disease occurred round about that period. Now the disease is seen in sporadic form. Encephalitis lethargica involves all age groups and both sexes. There is a seasonal incidence of the disease and it occurs mostly in

Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular disease constitute one of the commonest forms of disorders of central nervous system involving cerebral vessels. These disorders come suddenly and interfere with the blood supply of the brain leading to neurological damage. The incidence of these disorders is on the rise and persons with uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension and heavy smokers are more liable to

Cerebral thrombosis

Cerebral thrombosis means occlusion of one of the branches of the carotid artery and is often preceded by one or two transient, ischemic attacks. Common sites may be carotid artery in the head, basilar or vertebral artery in the neck. Cerebral thrombosis commonly results due to atherosclerosis when there is narrowing of the lumen of the vessel, thickening

Cerebral embolism

Cerebral embolism – Sudden occlusion of a cerebral vessel due to a thrombus arising from the carotid, artery or its branches or from a diseased heart constitutes the picture of cerebral embolism which develops suddenly with production of neurological signs. Common causes of cerebral embolism are: 1. Thrombosis arising from the right subclavian artery. 2. Clot arising from aortic aneurysm

Cerebral hemorrhage

Cerebral hemorrhage in the brain may be intracerebral, subarachnoid or intraventricular. The commonest cause of an intracerebral hemorrhage is rupture of an atheromatous artery in a person suffering from hypertension which in most of the cases is uncontrolled. Factor of degeneration of the cerebral blood vessels along with fluctuations of blood pressure levels account for most

Facial palsy or Bell’s palsy

Facial palsy – Facial nerve or seventh cranial nerve is largely a motor nerve supplying muscles of face. It arises from its nucleus located in the pons. The nerve follows a long course within the skull and leaves it through the stylomastoid foramen. While passing through the facial canal, it gives off a nerve to the

Epilepsy – causes, diagnosis, features and treatment

Epilepsy may be defined as abnormal transient disturbances of the cerebral function, paroxysmal in nature due to abnormalities in the electrical activity of brain cells. An attack of epilepsy is characterized by tonic and clonic convulsions with loss of consciousness coming on suddenly preceded by an aura, the attack ceasing spontaneously. This is typical form of epileptic attack

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