Vagal inhibition

Vagal inhibition is condition that causes sudden death to occur within seconds or a minute or two due to minor trauma or relatively simple and harmless peripheral stimulation. Pressure on the baroreceptors situated in the carotid sinuses, carotid sheaths, and the carotid body (located in the internal carotid artery just above the bifurcation of common carotid

Contributory negligence

CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE Contributory negligence is any unreasonable conduct, or absence of ordinary care on the part of the patient, or his personal attendant, which combined with the doctor’s negligence, contributed to the injury complained of, as a direct, proximate cause and without which the injury would not have occurred. These include (1) failure to give

Criminal trial process in forensic science

Criminal trial process in forensic science – Types of Trial: (1) Adversarial system: It is for the prosecution to prove their case to the Magistrate, beyond reasonable doubt. The defense does not have to prove innocence. (2) Inquisitorial System : (applied in Europe). Both the prosecution and defense have to make their cases to the court

Mechanical injury and its factors

Mechanical injury – An injury is any harm, whatever illegally caused to any person in body, mind, reputation or property (Sec. 44, I.P.C.). A wound or injury is a break of the natural continuity of any of the tissues of the living body. Mechanical injury (wounds) are injuries produced by physical violence. Trauma is an injury

Bruises or Contusions

Bruises or Contusions – A contusion is an effusion of blood into the tissues, due to the rupture of blood vessels (veins, venules and arterioles), caused by blunt trauma, such as fist, stone, stick, bar, whip, boot, etc. Contusions may be present not only in skin, but also in internal organs, such as the lung, heart,

Embalming a body

Embalming a body Emblaming is the treatment of the dead body with antiseptics and preservatives to prevent putrefaction. By this process proteins are coagulated, tissues are fixed, organs are bleached and hardened and blood is converted into a brownish mass. Embalming produces a chemical stiffening similar to rigor mortis, and normal rigor does not develop.

Collection of blood

Collection of blood – The cellular barrier of mucous and serous membranes breakdown after death, due to which substances in the stomach and intestine can migrate to the organs in the thorax and abdomen, causing false rise in the blood level. Before autopsy, 10 to 20 ml of blood can be drawn from the femoral vein

Autopsy of a body having aids and infections

Highly infectious diseases transmitted by direct contact or contact with infected materials, clothing, discharges, vomit, etc. are cholera, rabies, tetanus, anthrax, poliomyelitis, mumps, septicaemia, typhoid, tuberculosis, hepatitis B & C, diphtheria, C.S.F. meningitis, smallpox, plague, tick- borne encephalitis, equine encephalomyelitis, Tcell lymphotropic viruses I and II, and HIV. Patients with presenile dementia may have Creutzfeldt-Jakob

Development of a fetus

Development of a fetus – The term developing ovum is used for the first seven to ten days after conception, i.e., until the implantation occurs. It is called an ‘embryo’ from one week to the end of the second month, and later it is called ‘fetus’. It becomes an infant when it is completely born. Gestational age

Age estimation in General

Age estimation in General: In the male, at about fourteen years, fine hair begins to appear on pubis, the testes become larger and firmer and the penis begins to enlarge. At about fifteen years, hair is moderately grown on pubis, and hair begins to grow in axilla. At about 16 years, hair on pubis is well

Crime scene evidence collection

Crime scene evidence collection – Basic Rules for Preservation of Medico legal Evidence: For evidence to be legally accepted by the Courts: (1) It must be obtained in a legal manner. (2) It must be relevant to the issue. (3) The chain of custody of the item must be intact and known. (4) It must be evaluated

Crime scene photography

Crime scene photography – The dead body should be carefully lifted and placed on to a bed sheet, length of plastic or body bag and wrapped for transport. With heavy bodies, decomposed or fragile remains, the body should be rolled on to its side and the plastic stuck underneath the body. The body can then be

Basic rules of crime scene investigation

Crime scene investigation Things are not always what they seem to be at first sight. Many cases of homicide go undetected because of the lack of suspicion and improper or inadequate investigation. All cases of death should be regarded as unnatural, until proved otherwise. Violent deaths may show minimal or no external evidence of injury,

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