Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS)

It is now agreed that Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) should be started early in disease i.e. within 3-6 months of onset of symptoms when patient has persistent polyarticular synovitis, joint deformity and reduction in functional capacity. Traditionally patients are put on Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) when they fail to respond to

Neurological tests (CT scan, MRI, ECG, angiography, Xray, Electromyogram)

Neurological tests are some of the most common tests done throughout the world. Nervous system constitutes a major part of the body and its correct functioning is essential for the maintenance of quality of life. A number of disorders affect the mind, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, peripheral nerves and all associated parts of central, peripheral and


Antihistamines – There are two types of histamine antagonists namely H1 receptor antagonists (classical type) and H2 receptor antagonists (used in peptic ulcer). Only H1 receptor antagonists are described below and 112 receptor antagonists will be discussed along with other drugs used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. H1 antihistamines antagonists act by competitively blocking the histamine receptors.


The Glucocorticoids influence carbohydrate and protein metabolism whereas the mineralocorticoids affect water and electrolyte balance. Glucocorticoids enter target cells by diffusion and bind to specific receptors present in the cell nucleus. Thus they regulate protein synthesis by stimulating messenger RNA formation. Partly the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may be due to increased synthesis of cAMP

Antihyperlipidemic drugs reduce Plasma Triglycerides & Cholesterol

Drugs used for the treatment of Hyperlipidemia are called Antihyperlipidemic. The aim of the treatment is to lower the concentration of VLDL and LDL and raise HDL. 1.  Antihyperlipidemic Drugs which Primarily Reduce Plasma Triglycerides i. Nicotinic acid (niacin, B3): It is a water soluble vitamin. It lowers plasma triglyceride levels. Vitamin B3 reduces the levels

Vaccines for children

Vaccines for children may be broadly classified as Essential (EPI) vaccines included in national immunization schedule – BCG, OPV, DPT, Measles and Hepatitis B, Recommended or Optional vaccines e.g. MMR, H. influenza B, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Varicella, Vaccine for selective use e.g. High-risk children: Pneumococci, Meningococci, influenza virus Post-exposure: Anti-rabies vaccine and Combination Vaccines & Newer vaccines. ESSENTIAL (EPI) Vaccines for

Typhoid vaccination

Typhoid vaccination are of three types that are Whole-cell inactivated vaccines, Live attenuated oral vaccine (Ty2 1 strain), and parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. However, only the polysaccharide vaccine is currently available in Asian countries. Contents: Each dose contains 25 mgIO.5 ml of capsular polysaccharide units (Vi antigen). Supply & storage: It is supplied as

Oral polio vaccine

Oral polio vaccine (OPV): Two types of polio vaccines are available – a live, oral, Sabin vaccine and an inactivated, parenteral Salk vaccine, named after their developers. In India, OPV is used under NIS. Contents – OPV is a live attenuated, polyvalent vaccine, containing three strains of virus – I, II, and III, in concentrations

Measles vaccine

Measles vaccine is available as a single disease vaccine or in combination with mumps and rubella. Contents: It is a live attenuated vaccine prepared from Edmonston-Zagreb or Schwarz strain, containing 1000 TCID50/dose. Supply & storage of Measles vaccine: It is available as single dose or multi- dose vial containing lyophilized powder, along with a diluent and should

Bcg vaccine and its side effects

BCG Vaccine (Bacillus Calmatte Guerin vaccine) is the oldest amongst currently used vaccines (earliest vaccine was small pox, used in 1798), named after its developing scientists – Leon Charles Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin (1921). Contents of BCG Vaccine: It is a live attenuated vaccine containing 0.1- 0.4 million viable bacilli per dose, In India, Danish

Amebiasis treatment

Amebiasis is a parasitic disease that is very common in developing countries. Some people in the United States of America also show signs of the disease, if they have been travelling to the developing countries in the past. On the other hand, immigrants from developing countries may also be infected with amebiasis. Poor sanitary and


Anticonvulsants are described as a group of pharmaceutical medicines, that are administered to various patients suffering from epileptic seizures. According to recent information, various anticonvulsants are being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. These drugs have a mood stabilizing action and the main function of these medicines is to rapid and excessive firing of


Antitussives – Cough is a protective reflex. It helps in the expulsion of respiratory secretion or foreign particles from air passages. Stimulation of mechano-or chemoreceptors in throat, respiratory passages or stretch receptors in the lungs leads to cough. Antitussives Cough suppressant agents are called antitussives. These drugs act: • By raising the threshold of cough centre in

Antiplatelet drugs

Antiplatelet drugs – It is very useful in the treatment of severe hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) and familial hypercholesterolaemia (F-HC) in whom satisfactory plasma levels of LDL-C are not achieved with single drug. The most commonly used antiplatelet drugs is aspirin. It is used chronically in very low doses (40 to 325 mg per day) to prevent cardiovascular

Antihyperlipidemic medications

Antihyperlipidemic medications – Lipids are heterogeneous group of compounds. These are related to fatty acids. These are insoluble in water. However, these are soluble in ether and chloroform. These are of three types: a. Simple lipids: These are esters of alcohol and fatty acids. The fatty acids, present in diet, may be: • Saturated fatty acids

Define antipyretic

Various medical sources define antipyretic as medicine that lowers the body temperature in order to prevent or alleviate fever. It has been found to be effective in preventing or alleviating fever. Various types of antipyretics drugs that reduce body temperature are also used as pain relieving drugs.  Ibuprofen and paracetamol are some of the most

Antipyretic drugs

Antipyretic drugs are applied in order to reduce fever. These will not be effective, if the individual does not have fever. Antipyretic drugs target the hypothalamus, in order to override an interleukin induced fever. The term antipyretic means “preventing or alleviating fever”. In common terms, it means that the medicine can lower body temperature in order to


Cyanocobalamin is synthesized by certain micro-organisms in the intestine lumen. Cyanocobalamin is not synthesized by animal or plants. Liver, kidney, heart, egg yolk and milk are rich sources of vitamin B12. Commercial source of it is from streptomyces greseus. The daily nutritional requirements are 3—5 tg, which must be obtained from animal by-products in the


Antianginal Drugs – Heart supplies blood to all parts of the body. However, it gets its own supply of blood through the coronary arteries (4% of cardiac output; oxygen extraction 75% in comparison to 25% in the systemic circulation). The coronary flow of blood occurs during the diastole only. Angina pectoris is a clinical condition

Anticholinergic delirium

Anticholinergic delirium is described as various symptoms that are associated with the administration of anticholinergic agents leading to delirium, and these include  a state of confusion leads to  disorientation. The individual affected by anticholinergic delirium will be showing signs of agitation. Patients  suffering from anticholinergic delirium may be suffering from respiratory depression. Various memory problems

error: Content is protected !!