Neurological tests (CT scan, MRI, ECG, angiography, Xray, Electromyogram)

Neurological tests are some of the most common tests done throughout the world. Nervous system constitutes a major part of the body and its correct functioning is essential for the maintenance of quality of life. A number of disorders affect the mind, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, peripheral nerves and all associated parts of central, peripheral and

Myotonia congenita (Thomsen’s disease)

Myotonia congenita (Thomsen’s disease) is a rare hereditary disease which occurs in autosomal dominant form and is characterized by prolonged tonic contraction and delayed relaxation of muscles which is noticeable at the beginning and end of activity. The disease is usually observed in childhood but in many it shows up in adult life. Essential feature is

Guillain Barre Syndrome – features, diagnosis and treatment

Guillain Barre Syndrome is an immune mediated disorder characterized by acute and severe polyneuropathy. The antigen here is a basic myelin protein P2 and the nerve damage is as a result of T cell mediated injury. Antimyelin antibodies are present in higher titers in early stage of the disease. A virus illness generally precedes the

Diseases of Muscles

Muscles in the body consist of both voluntary and involuntary forms and of these voluntary or sthated muscles constitute the largest component in the body. A muscle is composed of several muscle fibres and each muscle fibre represents a separate anatomic and physiologic unit. A single muscle fibre contains thousands of myofibrilis which are bathed

Compression of the spinal cord

The spinal cord is compressed due to a number of causes ranging from diseases of the vertebral column, spinal tumors and inflammation of the meninges. In compression the lumen of the spinal canal is reduced resulting in injury at the site of compression either directly or indirectly due to interference of its blood supply. Except


The Algor Mortis (chill of death or cooling of dead body) is a complex process, which does not occur at the same rate throughout the body. After stoppage of circulation, convectional transport of heat inside the body stops. The postmortem rate of heat production by anaerobic glycolysis is very low. With the start of Algor


Brain Stem  is where the cerebrum may be intact, though cut off functionally by the stem lesion. The loss of the vital centers that control respiration, and of the ascending reticular activating system that sustains consciousness, cause the victim to be irreversibly comatose and incapable of spontaneous breathing. This can be produced by raised intracranial

Vagal inhibition

Vagal inhibition is condition that causes sudden death to occur within seconds or a minute or two due to minor trauma or relatively simple and harmless peripheral stimulation. Pressure on the baroreceptors situated in the carotid sinuses, carotid sheaths, and the carotid body (located in the internal carotid artery just above the bifurcation of common carotid


If air embolism is suspected while doing human autopsy, the head should be opened first and the surface vessels of the brain examined for gas bubbles, which must be prominent and definite, but not segmental breakup of the blood in the vessels with collapsed segments between. Care should be taken to avoid pulling the sternum


Hair analysis in forensics – Trichology is the study of hair. It grows at the rate of 0.4 mm/day and nails at 0.1 mm/day. The examination of the it is undertaken to find out: Is it Hair or is it Some other Fiber? It consists of bulb or root and a shaft. Considerable force is required


Fingerprints are impressions of patterns formed by the papillary or epidermal ridges of the fingertips. The ridge patterns of fingers appear between 12 to 16 weeks of intrauterine life and the formation is completed by 24 weeks. At birth a fine pattern of ridges is seen on the skin of the bulbs of the fingers


Facial reconstruction in Forensics – In 1935 in Ruxton case, the Skull photo superimposition technique was applied by Brash and Glaister in 1935 in Ruxton case. This technique determines whether the skull in question is the same as the skull of the person who is in the photograph. The photograph need not be front view of the

Contributory negligence

CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE Contributory negligence is any unreasonable conduct, or absence of ordinary care on the part of the patient, or his personal attendant, which combined with the doctor’s negligence, contributed to the injury complained of, as a direct, proximate cause and without which the injury would not have occurred. These include (1) failure to give

Criminal trial process in forensic science

Criminal trial process in forensic science – Types of Trial: (1) Adversarial system: It is for the prosecution to prove their case to the Magistrate, beyond reasonable doubt. The defense does not have to prove innocence. (2) Inquisitorial System : (applied in Europe). Both the prosecution and defense have to make their cases to the court


Documentary evidence in forensic science: It is of three types – Medical Certificates They refer to ill- health, insanity, age, death, etc. They are accepted in a Court of law, only when they are issued by a qualified registered medical practitioner. The certificate of ill-health should contain exact nature of illness, and probable period of

Complement deficiency

Complement deficiency are rarely congenital, seen more commonly as acquired defects due to — a) Deficient production e.g. in newborns, PEM and chronic liver diseases, b) Defective function e.g. in sickle cell disease, c) Increased consumption or loss e.g. in septicemia, bums, SLE and nephrotic syndrome. Clinical features Clinically, complement deficiency cases present with recurrent pyogenic


Antihistamines – There are two types of histamine antagonists namely H1 receptor antagonists (classical type) and H2 receptor antagonists (used in peptic ulcer). Only H1 receptor antagonists are described below and 112 receptor antagonists will be discussed along with other drugs used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. H1 antihistamines antagonists act by competitively blocking the histamine receptors.

Anaphylactic reaction

Anaphylactic reaction is acute, life-threatening IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, provoked by variety of injected, inhaled or ingested foreign substances. Note that the term anaphylactic reaction denotes clinically similar reactions to certain agents e.g. radid-contrast dyes, which are not immunologically mediated. Causes Common precipitating agents for anaphylactic reaction are shown on many sites online, though the cause remains unidentified


The Glucocorticoids influence carbohydrate and protein metabolism whereas the mineralocorticoids affect water and electrolyte balance. Glucocorticoids enter target cells by diffusion and bind to specific receptors present in the cell nucleus. Thus they regulate protein synthesis by stimulating messenger RNA formation. Partly the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may be due to increased synthesis of cAMP

Antihyperlipidemic drugs reduce Plasma Triglycerides & Cholesterol

Drugs used for the treatment of Hyperlipidemia are called Antihyperlipidemic. The aim of the treatment is to lower the concentration of VLDL and LDL and raise HDL. 1.  Antihyperlipidemic Drugs which Primarily Reduce Plasma Triglycerides i. Nicotinic acid (niacin, B3): It is a water soluble vitamin. It lowers plasma triglyceride levels. Vitamin B3 reduces the levels

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