Unlocking the Power of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

When it comes to kickstarting your fitness journey, you’ve probably heard of High-Intensity Interval Training, commonly known as HIIT. This dynamic and efficient workout method has taken the fitness world by storm, offering a transformative approach to achieving your fitness goals. Whether you’re a beginner looking to dip your toes into the HIIT waters or

Pedal Progress: Mastering Indoor Cycling Workouts

Introduction Indoor cycling, also known as spinning, has skyrocketed in popularity as a convenient and effective way to stay fit and active from the comfort of your home. With indoor cycling bikes becoming increasingly accessible, many avid cyclists and fitness enthusiasts are turning to indoor cycling as a primary means of training. In this article,

Relieving Stress Through Yoga: A Journey to Inner Peace

In today’s fast-paced world, stress has become a common companion for many individuals. The constant hustle and bustle of daily life can take a toll on our mental and physical well-being. However, amidst the chaos, there lies a serene and powerful practice that has been aiding people in finding solace and tranquility – yoga. Yoga

The Power of Strength Training for a Healthier Body

Strength training, also known as resistance training, is a key component of overall physical fitness that involves working your muscles against resistance to improve strength and endurance. While cardio exercises like running or cycling are often in the spotlight, the benefits of incorporating strength training into your fitness routine should not be overlooked. Let’s explore

The Energizing Power of Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic exercise, commonly known as cardio, is a dynamic form of physical activity that gets your heart pumping and increases your breathing rate. It involves continuous, rhythmic movements that engage large muscle groups and require an increased amount of oxygen to generate the energy needed to sustain the activity. Not only is aerobic exercise a


Clinical Examination of the Ear Equipment for Ear Examination Both indirect and direct light sources are used1. Bull’s eye lamp-indirect light source.2. Head mirror.3. Head light-direct light source.4. Ear specula of various sizes-The largest speculum which can be conveniently inserted into the ear canal should be used.5. Siegel’s pneumatic speculum.6. Tuning fork-256, 512, 1024 Hz


When sound signal strikes the tympanic membrane, the vibration is transmitted to the stapes footplate through a chain of ossicles. The movements of the stapes causes pressure changes in the labyrinthine fluids which move the basilar membrane. This stimulates the hair cells of the organ of corti which acts as a transducer. MECHANISMS OF HEARING


“Otology is almost unique even ill the later part of the 20th century in not being able to explain at least a few of its diseases ill biochemical terms”– Ruben 1975. Ear is divided into three parts:1. External ear2. Middle ear3. Inner earIt consists of pinna and external auditory canal. Pinna develops from six tubercles

Embryology of the Ear

EAR DEVELOPMENT Ear has a very complex source of development. The sound conductive apparatus develops from the branchial apparatus whereas the sound perceptive apparatus develops from the ectodermal otocyst (pars otica). Because of this dual source of origin the developmental anomaly that produced commonly affects either the sound conductive system which includes anomaly of the

Systemic lupus erythematosis

Systemic lupus erythematosis is one of the important autoimmune disorders which involve various systems in the body including kidneys. Its exact etiology is not known but genetic factors and abnormal immune responses have a role to play. Circulating immune complexes composed of a variety of endogenous antigens along with auto antibodies. DNA form major component of

Immune Hemolytic Anemia

Auto Immune Hemolytic Anemia are acquired disorders where auto-antibodies develop against one’s own red blood cells and haemolysis results from their increased destruction. Auto immune haemolytic anemia are divided into warm or cold types depending which temperature the antibody binds itself to the red cell. Warm auto immune anemia occurs at all ages though more in

Goodpasture‘s syndrome

Goodpasture‘s syndrome constitutes triad of glomerulonephritis, Pulmonaty hemorrhage and antibody to basement membrane antigens. Its etiology is unknown. It affects people at any age. Patient generally presents with cough, breathing difficulty and haemoptysis. Anti-GBH antibodies react with an antigen in the glomerular basement membrane producing necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Rapidly progressive renal failure may occur. Circulating antibodies to

Autoimmune myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an acquired auto immune disorder of the myoneural junction resulting from attack of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors. The antibodies originate in thymus, reaching skeletal neuro muscular junctions via blood stream. The antibodies cause complement mediated damage at the neuro muscular junction producing functional blockage at the antibody binding sites. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis

Autoimmune Hepatitis Chronic Active

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease characterized by irresolving inflammation of the liver, a predominant pen portal. Hepatitis which generally involves young women who are well nourished with moon facies, acne, amenorrhea hirsuties, pigmentation and abdominal striae. Onset is insidious and patient may be asymptomatic for number of years. Patient is mildly jaundiced with hepatosplenomegaly.

Autoimmune disorders or diseases

Autoimmune disorders – An agent capable of stimulating immune response is known as antigen. It may be a protein, polysaccharide or a complex lipid. There are two kinds of immune responses. Humoral immune response involved in the production of antibodies and cellular immunity in which incompetent cells react directly against the foreign material. T and

Connective Tissue Disorders

Connective Tissue Disorders are a group of disorders which are characterized by arthralgia, arthritis, myositis, raynauds phenomenon and skin lesions. There is multi system involvement with fibrinoid degeneration of connective tissue. Most Connective Tissue Disorders are common in women and these include systemic lupus erythematosis and Sjogren’s syndrome while in men vasculatides are more common. Characteristic features

Ankylosing spondylitis (marie-strupell disease)

It is a chronic progressive inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, distinguished by the involvement of sacroiliac joints, synovial and spinal joints and the adjacent soft tissues. There may be associated involvement of peripheral joints and extra-articular structures. It is often referred to as rheumatoid spondylitis (Bambo spine). The disease is characterized by long intermittent course

Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa is an uncommon connective tissue disorder, characterized by involvement of small and medium sized arteries. There is necrotizing vasculitis with polymorphonuclear infiltration, necrosis and aneursymal dilatation of the vessel wall. The involvement of vessels is widespread and involves major organs except pulmonary vessels. It is a rare disease which commonly manifests in adult age,

Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS)

It is now agreed that Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) should be started early in disease i.e. within 3-6 months of onset of symptoms when patient has persistent polyarticular synovitis, joint deformity and reduction in functional capacity. Traditionally patients are put on Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) when they fail to respond to

error: Content is protected !!