Recent Posts

What is Menstruation – its clinical features & symptoms

Menstruation Menstruation is a relatively later feature of puberty and starts at the age of 12 to 14years. It continues more or less regularly throughout childbearing age, and stops usually at the age of 50 to 55 years (menopause). Clinical features Regularity The menstrual cycle is of 28+or- 2 days. …

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What is Delayed Puberty & Precocious puberty

Delayed Puberty This means delayed in the development of the features characteristic of puberty up to the age of 17 to 18 years. In some cases the delay may be because of environmental influence on the hypothalamus and in other it may be without any cause. This could be familial. …

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How do Dads bond with their new babies- Love hormones

According to latest studies by Emory University of Atlanta, It’s not just mothers but fathers also undergo hormonal changes which are likely to increase their care,empathy and motivation for their children. The Love hormone- Oxytocin play an important role in bonding fathers with their child. It is a hormone which …

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Clinical Examination for Ear Disease

Clinical Examination of the Ear Equipment for Ear Examination Both indirect and direct light sources are used 1. Bull’s eye lamp-indirect light source. 2. Head mirror. 3. Head light-direct light source. 4. Ear specula of various sizes-The largest speculum which can be conveniently inserted into the ear canal should be …

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History Taking for Ear Infections

HISTORY TAKING History taking and careful clinical examination is very much essential to establish a proper diagnosis. No amount of present day sophisticated investigations can replace thorough history taking and careful clinical examination. History taking for ear diseases can be described under the following headings: • Chief complaints • History …

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Vestibular System- Mechanism and Functions

It was Mach in 1875 that identified the role of the vestibular apparatus in the perception of motion. This consists of functional subdivisions – Semicircular canals-Sense of head rotation. Otolith organs-Stimulated by gravity and linear acceleration of the head. Physiologically, the vestibular labyrinth transduces mechanical energy (linear and angular) into …

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Theories of Hearing

Theories of Hearing • Helmhotz’s place theory (1883): postulated that the basilar membrane acts as a series of tuned resonators similar to a piano string. Each pitch would cause resonant vibration of the basilar membrane which is particular to its own place. Thus, the frequency was analyzed. High frequency waves …

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Ear Physiology

When sound signal strikes the tympanic membrane, the vibration is transmitted to the stapes footplate through a chain of ossicles. The movements of the stapes causes pressure changes in the labyrinthine fluids which move the basilar membrane. This stimulates the hair cells of the organ of corti which acts as …

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Inner Ear Anatomy- Development and Relationship

Development It starts in the 3rd week of the intrauterine life and is completed by the 16th week of the intrauterine life. Membranous labyrinth develops from the otic capsule. This differentiates into various structures, like sensory end organ of hearing and equilibrium. Bony labyrinth develops from the otic capsule. This …

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Middle Ear-Anatomy and Development

Structures of Tympanic Cavity The entire middle ear cleft is lined by columnar ciliated and pavement epithelium. It is an exten­ sion of the respiratory mucous membrane from nasopharynx. The middle ear cleft consists of: 1. Eustachian tube 2. Tympanic cavity 3. Mastoid antrum 4. Aditus ad antrum 5. Mastoid …

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External Ear Anatomy

“Otology is almost unique even ill the later part of the 20th century in not being able to explain at least a few of its diseases ill biochemical terms” – Ruben 1975. Ear is divided into three parts: 1. External ear 2. Middle ear 3. Inner ear It consists of …

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Embryology of the Ear

EAR DEVELOPMENT Ear has a very complex source of development. The sound conductive apparatus develops from the branchial apparatus whereas the sound perceptive apparatus develops from the ectodermal otocyst (pars otica). Because of this dual source of origin the developmental anomaly that produced commonly affects either the sound conductive system …

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Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS)

It is now agreed that Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) should be started early in disease i.e. within 3-6 months of onset of symptoms when patient has persistent polyarticular synovitis, joint deformity and reduction in functional capacity. Traditionally patients are put on Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) when they fail …

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