Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency - Cobalamin is a cobalt-containing vitamin, essential for nucleic acid metabolism and myelin formation. (Cyancobalamin is the therapeutic…

Vitamin A deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), till recently, was the commonest cause of preventable blindness in Indian children. Although the prevalence of…

Vitamin c deficiency

Scurvy is well-defined acute manifestation of Vitamin C deficiency, though mild or sub clinical deficiency states may present with impaired…

Sjogrens syndrome

Sjogrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by triad of dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), dry month (xerostomia) and arthritis. It has been classified into primary where the disease occurs by itself and secondary when it is associated with other autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosis,…

Goodpasture‘s syndrome

Goodpasture‘s syndrome constitutes triad of glomerulonephritis, Pulmonaty hemorrhage and antibody to basement membrane antigens. Its etiology…

Systemic lupus erythematosis

Systemic lupus erythematosis is one of the important autoimmune disorders which involve various systems in the…

Autoimmune myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an acquired auto immune disorder of the myoneural junction resulting from attack…

Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS)

It is now agreed that Disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) should be started early in disease i.e. within 3-6 months of onset of symptoms when patient has persistent polyarticular synovitis, joint deformity and reduction in functional capacity. Traditionally patients are put on Disease modifying anti rheumatic…

Neurological tests (CT scan, MRI, ECG, angiography, Xray, Electromyogram)

Neurological tests are some of the most common tests done throughout the world. Nervous system…

Antihistamines

Antihistamines - There are two types of histamine antagonists namely H1 receptor antagonists (classical type) and H2…

Antihyperlipidemic drugs reduce Plasma Triglycerides & Cholesterol

Drugs used for the treatment of Hyperlipidemia are called Antihyperlipidemic. The aim of the treatment is…

Stab wound analysis in forensics

A stab wound is produced when force is delivered along the long axis of a narrow or pointed object, such as knife, dagger, nail, needle, spear, arrow, screw driver, etc. into the depths of the body. It is deeper than its length and width on…

Algor mortis

The Algor Mortis (chill of death or cooling of dead body) is a complex process,…

Vagal inhibition

Vagal inhibition is condition that causes sudden death to occur within seconds or a minute or…

Somatic death

Somatic death is the complete and irreversible stoppage of the circulation, respiration and brain functions (Bishop’s…

Clinical Examination for Ear Disease

Clinical Examination of the Ear Equipment for Ear Examination Both indirect and direct light sources are used 1. Bull’s eye lamp-indirect light source. 2. Head mirror. 3. Head light-direct light source. 4. Ear specula of various sizes-The largest speculum which can be conveniently inserted into…

History Taking for Ear Infections

HISTORY TAKING History taking and careful clinical examination is very much essential to establish a…

Vestibular System- Mechanism and Functions

It was Mach in 1875 that identified the role of the vestibular apparatus in the…

Theories of Hearing

Theories of Hearing • Helmhotz’s place theory (1883): postulated that the basilar membrane acts as…

Advanced maternal age risk table

According to the advanced maternal age risk table, as a woman gets older her risk of developing chromosomal aberrations in the fetus increases. Therefore, the maternal age is very important when ascertaining the incidence of various chromosomal abnormalities like the Down’s syndrome. The advanced maternal…

Fibrocystic breast disease

Fibrocystic breast disease is identified by the presence of lumps in women. It can also…