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Monthly Archives: May 2011

Development of a fetus

Development of a fetus – The term developing ovum is used for the first seven to ten days after conception, i.e., until the implantation occurs. It is called an ‘embryo’ from one week to the end of the second month, and later it is called ‘fetus’. It becomes an infant when …

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Age estimation in General

Age estimation in General: In the male, at about fourteen years, fine hair begins to appear on pubis, the testes become larger and firmer and the penis begins to enlarge. At about fifteen, hair is moderately grown on pubis, and it begins to grow in axilla. At about 16, hair …

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Medicolegal importance of age

Medicolegal importance of age: In medico-legal cases, the age of a person is determined by medical officer on requisition from the police officer or Magistrate. Written consent of the person should be taken. The following particulars should be noted. (1) Name, fathers name, age alleged by the person, sex, occupation, …

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Age estimation from bone ossification

Age estimation from bone ossification – The bones of the human skeleton are preformed in hyaline cartilage. This soft tissue model is gradually converted into hard osseous tissue by the development of osteogenesis, frequently in a central position, from which the process of transformation spreads, until the whole skeleton is ossified. …

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Forensic odontology to determine age

Forensic odontology to determine age – The alveolar cavities which contain teeth are formed around the third or fourth month of intrauterine life. Development of the tooth begins with the formation of cellular tooth germ within the alveolar bone, in the shape of the crown. Apposition and calcification of enamel and …

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Human sex identification in forensic science

Sex identification has to be determined in cases of – heirship, marriage, divorce, legitimacy, impotence, rape, etc. A normal person has 46 chromosomes. The chromatin pattern in male is XY and in female XX. Masculine and feminine characteristics most directly depend on the level of circulating sex hormones. SEX CHROMATIN It is a small …

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Human identification

Human identification is the determination of the individuality of a person based on certain physical characteristics, i.e. exact fixation of personality. In partial or incomplete identification, certain facts are determined, e.g., race, age, sex, stature, etc., while other characters are not known. Human identification is necessary in: (1) Living people. …

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Protection of human rights act 1993

The protection of human rights act 1993 provides for constitution of a National Human Rights Commission (N.H.R.C.) and State Human Rights Commission (S.H.R.C.). The purpose of the Act is to provide better protection of human rights and for matters connected therewith or incidental to that. The NHRC may enquire any …

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