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Monthly Archives: May 2012

Allergic Rhinitis – causes, symptoms, treatment

In allergic rhinitis, there is inflation of the mucous membranes of the nose due to exposure to an inhaled allergenic trigger. Allergic rhinitis is becoming more common with increasing urbanization and industrialization. It is being considered as serious global health issue, affecting human productivity and quality of life.20-25 per cent …

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Vaccines for children

Vaccines for children may be broadly classified as Essential (EPI) vaccines included in national immunization schedule – BCG, OPV, DPT, Measles and Hepatitis B, Recommended or Optional vaccines e.g. MMR, H. influenza B, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Varicella, Vaccine for selective use e.g. High-risk children: Pneumococci, Meningococci, influenza virus Post-exposure: Anti-rabies vaccine and Combination Vaccines & Newer …

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Typhoid vaccination

Typhoid vaccination are of three types that are Whole-cell inactivated vaccines, Live attenuated oral vaccine (Ty2 1 strain), and parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. However, only the polysaccharide vaccine is currently available in Asian countries. Contents: Each dose contains 25 mgIO.5 ml of capsular polysaccharide units (Vi antigen). Supply & …

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Measles vaccine

Measles vaccine is available as a single disease vaccine or in combination with mumps and rubella. Contents: It is a live attenuated vaccine prepared from Edmonston-Zagreb or Schwarz strain, containing 1000 TCID50/dose. Supply & storage of Measles vaccine: It is available as single dose or multi- dose vial containing lyophilized powder, along …

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Oral polio vaccine

Oral polio vaccine (OPV): Two types of polio vaccines are available – a live, oral, Sabin vaccine and an inactivated, parenteral Salk vaccine, named after their developers. In India, OPV is used under NIS. Contents – OPV is a live attenuated, polyvalent vaccine, containing three strains of virus – I, …

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Bcg vaccine and its side effects

BCG Vaccine (Bacillus Calmatte Guerin vaccine) is the oldest amongst currently used vaccines (earliest vaccine was small pox, used in 1798), named after its developing scientists – Leon Charles Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin (1921). Contents of BCG Vaccine: It is a live attenuated vaccine containing 0.1- 0.4 million viable …

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Dehydration in children

Dehydration in children denotes loss of TBW from extracellular and! or intracellular compartments, due to reduced intake or more likely, excessive losses via urine, stools, lungs or skin. As these losses are predominantly from ECF compartment, ECF dehydration is dominates in early stages. ICE dehydration usually develops after redistribution of …

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Water homeostasis

Water homeostasis – Total body water (TBW) contributes to 78% of body weight at birth, but declines rapidly due to physiological diuresis in newborns and growth of low-water adipose tissue in late infancy, to reach the adult level of —55-60% by one year of age. Post-pubertal females and obese persons have …

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Trace elements in Nutrition

Trace elements in nutrition are defined as ‘biologically important minerals, present in very small amounts (<250 mg/gm of matrix) in human body’. Minerals present in still smaller amounts (<100 ng/gm) are termed as ultra- trace elements. The role of trace elements in health and disease is being increasingly recognized in …

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