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Children Health

Anxiety Disorders in children

Anxiety Disorders – Anxiety/fear is a normal part of development, beginning with stranger’s fear by 6-8 months of age. The term anxiety disorders or neurosis denotes ‘disproportionately excessive anxiety to a real event or undue anxiety to an imaginary cause’. Common anxiety disorders include — a) Phobia e.g. school phobia …

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Behavioral disorders

Behavioral disorders – Development of behavior in children is a complex process, influenced by inherent temperament as well as exogenous influences like family and social environment.  Consequently, all children, like all adults, have unique behavioral traits, usually within the acceptable limits of deviance. It is important to differentiate these benign …

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Disruptive behavior disorder – symptoms, management, diagnosis and treatment

Disruptive behavior disorder – Children are expected to behave within the socially acceptable limits, which is determined by their age, social norms, training/moral standards and parent-child relationship. Negativism i.e. opposition to parental instructions is a normal phase of development during 18- 36 months of age, leading to anger/frustration. By 4-5 years, …

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Disorders in children

All children acquire one or more habits at some point of their development. The term disorders in children denotes unusual persistence of habits, which interfere child’s physical, emotional and social functioning. Most of these disorders indicate a physical expression of underlying emotional tension (tension-discharge phenomena). Althougn the list of disorders in children …

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Vegetative disorder

Vegetative disorder may be defined as ‘abnormalities of vegetative functions e.g. eating, evacuation or sleep, either due to delayed maturation of bodily functions or abnormal psychosocial development’. However, some of them may have underlying organic etiology that needs to be excluded. Pica, enuresis and encopresis are common Vegetative disorder in …

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Hearing Impairment

Hearing impairment is the essential sensory pathway for development of speech & language and presence of even mild hearing loss in early childhood may affect speech, language, learning and psychosocial development. Incidence: Moderate to severe hearing loss is estimated to be present in 0.1-0.5% children, apart from a large number …

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Learning disorders

Learning disorders or disabilities (Minimum brain dysfunction syndrome) include a large group of low severity-high incidence disorders, all characterized by ‘difficulties in coping with academic skills (learning) due to problems related to attention span, speech, language or motor co-ordination, which can not be explained by intelligence quotient, visual and hearing …

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Mental retardation in children

Mental retardation in children is defined as the ‘sub-average intellectual functioning resulting from any insult during the period of development, co-existing with limitations in at least two of the following 10 areas of adaptive behaviors – communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, …

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Short stature in children

Short stature in children is a common cause of concern in school-age children, defined as the ‘length or height of the child being below the 3rd percentile (< 2 SD) of expected value for age’. However, the diagnosis of short stature should be made carefully in pre-pubertal children, as many of …

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Obesity in children

In Children, Growth & developmental problems are quite common cause of parental concerns, though all of them are not necessarily pathological. Although frequently used interchangeably, the term overweight and Obesity in children have different connotations. Children with body weight exceeding 97 percentile or 110% of expected Weight for age are …

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