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Forensic Medicine

Bruises or Contusions

Bruises or Contusions – A contusion is an effusion of blood into the tissues, due to the rupture of blood vessels (veins, venules and arterioles), caused by blunt trauma, such as fist, stone, stick, bar, whip, boot, etc. Contusions may be present not only in skin, but also in internal organs, …

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Embalming a body

Embalming a body Emblaming is the treatment of the dead body with antiseptics and preservatives to prevent putrefaction. By this process proteins are coagulated, tissues are fixed, organs are bleached and hardened and blood is converted into a brownish mass. Embalming produces a chemical stiffening similar to rigor mortis, and …

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Mummification is a modification of putrefaction. Dehydration or drying and shriveling of the cadaver occurs from the evaporation of water, but the natural appearances and features of the body are preserved. It begins in the exposed parts like face, hands and feet and then extends to the entire body including …

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Adipocere or Saponification

Adipocere (cire=wax) is a modification of putrefaction. In this, the fatty tissues of the body change into a substance known as adipocere. It is seen most commonly in bodies immersed in water or in damp, warm environment. Mechanism: The change is due to the gradual hydrolysis and hydrogenation of pre-existing …

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Decomposition of human body

Decomposition of human body involves two processes : autolysis and putrefaction. Autolysis Autolysis is Self-digestion of tissues. Soon after death, cell membranes become permeable and breakdown, with release of cytoplasm containing enzymes. Lysosomes and their digestive enzymes (mainly hydrolases) are released from the cells. The proteolytic, glycolytic and lipolytic action …

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Postmortem Hypostasis

Postmortem Hypostasis – It is usually of two kinds of coloration, that is, This is the bluish-purple or purplish-red (due to deoxyhaemoglobin) discolouration, which appears under the skin in the most superficial layers of the dermis (rete mucosum) of the dependent parts of the body after death, due to capillo-venous …

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