Smoking Tobacco of all types whether cigarette, bidi or hooka carries a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Almost all major organs of the body bear brunt of smoking whether it be heart (coronary heart disease), lungs (cancer, chronic bronchitis, asthmatic bronchitis), nervous system (cerebrovascular accidents), G. I. Tract (gastritis, peptic… Continue Reading Tobacco and its hazards

 Organophosphorus poisoning is of common occurrence in agricultural countries since these insecticides are used for spraying of agricultural crops as well as for destruction of vermin’s and rodents. Often they are used for suicidal and homicidal purposes. Organophosphorus poisoning compounds and carbmates are a family that have structural similarities. They act by… Continue Reading Organophosphorus poisoning

Toxoplasmosis is of world wide distribution and is caused by a small protozoon, Toxoplasma gondii which exists in three forms i.e. trophozoites, cysts and oocysts. The trophozoites are mainly responsible for acute infection while cysts are pathologic hallmark of chronic infection and remain latent in immunologically normal hosts. The later are… Continue Reading Toxoplasmosis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Chikungunya is an alpha viral infection which generally occurs in epidemics. The term Chikungunya is SWAHILI derived from KUNGUN’\ALA meaning to become contorted or more specifically as that which bends up. This refers to the stooped posture of patients afflicted by severe joint pains which accompany the disease. Aetiology Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is… Continue Reading Chikungunya – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by mosquito Aedes Aegyhti or other species of this genus. It is endemic in many countries of ASIA, AFRICA central and South America, All ages and both sexes are liable to get infection. The virus is filterable and four sero types called DEN-I,… Continue Reading Dengue fever – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (oriental sore) is an infective granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues causing either a papular lesion which ulcerates later on (Dry type) or one with early kind (MOIST Type). Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by L. tropica and L. major. L. tropica is endemic in India, urban areas… Continue Reading Cutaneous leishmaniasis (oriental sore) – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Kala azar means dark pigmentation which is characteristic of cases of visceral leishmaniasis. It is caused by Leishmania donovani bodies and may be present either in endemic, epidemic or sporadic forms. It is widely prevalent in India in epidemic form in states of Bihar, Assam and Bengal. Kala azar found… Continue Reading Visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar) – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Leishmaniasis denotes diseases caused by protozoa belonging to genus LEISHMANIA and consists of number of diseases but the important one are: 1. Leishmania donovani causing visceral type (Kala azar) 2. L. Tropica major and minor causing oriental sore. 3. L. Mexicana and L. Braziliensis responsible for cutaneous and muco cutaneous. The… Continue Reading Leishmaniasis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease, is a disease virtually confined to humans is of world wide distribution. It is caused by acid fast bacillus. Mycobocterium leprae. Leprosy can involve a person of any age though it does not occur in infants. It is more common in males as compared… Continue Reading Leprosy (hansen’s disease) – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment