Recent Posts

Age estimation from bone ossification

Age estimation from bone ossification – The bones of the human skeleton are preformed in hyaline cartilage. This soft tissue model is gradually converted into hard osseous tissue by the development of osteogenesis, frequently in a central position, from which the process of transformation spreads, until the whole skeleton is ossified. …

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Forensic odontology to determine age

Forensic odontology to determine age – The alveolar cavities which contain teeth are formed around the third or fourth month of intrauterine life. Development of the tooth begins with the formation of cellular tooth germ within the alveolar bone, in the shape of the crown. Apposition and calcification of enamel and …

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Human sex identification in forensic science

Sex identification has to be determined in cases of – heirship, marriage, divorce, legitimacy, impotence, rape, etc. A normal person has 46 chromosomes. The chromatin pattern in male is XY and in female XX. Masculine and feminine characteristics most directly depend on the level of circulating sex hormones. SEX CHROMATIN It is a small …

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Race identification in forensic science

Race identification: It can be determined by: (1) Complexion: It is of limited value. The skin is brown in Indians, fair in Europeans and black in Negroes. Skin colour is changed by decomposition, burning, etc. (2) Eyes: Indians have dark eyes, a few have brown eyes. Europeans have blue or …

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Human identification

Human identification is the determination of the individuality of a person based on certain physical characteristics, i.e. exact fixation of personality. In partial or incomplete identification, certain facts are determined, e.g., race, age, sex, stature, etc., while other characters are not known. Human identification is necessary in: (1) Living people. …

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Protection of human rights act 1993

The protection of human rights act 1993 provides for constitution of a National Human Rights Commission (N.H.R.C.) and State Human Rights Commission (S.H.R.C.). The purpose of the Act is to provide better protection of human rights and for matters connected therewith or incidental to that. The NHRC may enquire any …

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Transplantation of human organs act 1994

Transplantation of human organs act 1994 – There are three main aspects of the Act: (1) It aims at putting a stop to live unrelated transplants. (2) In the case of a live related transplant, it defines that the donor and recipient are genetically related, with an exception if the transplant …

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Consumer protection act 1986

Consumer protection act 1986 – This Act seeks to provide for better protection of the interests of consumers and for that purpose provides for the establishment of Consumer Councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumer’s disputes and for matters connected therewith. The Consumer protection act 1986 covers all private, corporate …

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Workmen compensation act 1923

Workmen compensation act 1923: This Act provides for the payment of compensation to workmen for injuries sustained by them by accident, arising out of and in the course of employment. If a workman is killed, his dependents will be entitled to compensation for his death. Under the Workmen compensation act …

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Human experimentation

DECLARATION OF HELSINKI: World Medical Association drew up a Code of Ethics on human experimentation in 1964 which was revised in 1975. (1) Basic Principles Bio-medical research involving human subjects must conform to the moral and scientific principles that justify medical research, which should be based on scientifically established facts …

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Malingering

Malingering or shamming means conscious, planned feigning or pretending a disease for the sake of gain. Diseases may be feigned for several reasons, such as by soldiers or policemen to avoid their duties, by prisoners to avoid hard work, by businessmen to avoid business contracts, by workmen to claim compensation, …

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Consent in medical practice

Consent in medical practice means voluntary agreement, compliance or permission. Consent signifies acceptance by a person of the consequences of an act that is being carried out. To be legally valid, it must be given after understanding what it is given for, and of risks involved. Reasons for obtaining consent …

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Medical records

The objects of medical records are: (1) To serve as the basis for the patient’s care and for continuity in the evaluation of his treatment. (2) To serve as documentation for reimbursement. (3) To provide data for use in education and clinical research. (4) To document communication between the doctor …

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Vicarious liability in Medical field

Vicarious liability (liability for act of another) An employer is responsible not only for his own negligence but also for the negligence of his employees, if such acts occur in the course of the employment and within its scope, by the principle of respondent superior (let the master answer). Three …

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Therapeutic misadventure

Therapeutic misadventure: A misadventure is mischance or accident or disaster. Misadventure is of three types: (1) Therapeutic (when treatment is being given). (2) Diagnostic (where diagnosis only is the objective at the time). (3) Experimental (where the patient has agreed to serve as a subject in an experimental study). Therapeutic …

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