Opportunistic infection are defined as “infections with unusual frequency, microbial etiology or natural course, in a host with impaired normal defense mechanisms “. Incidence of these has substantially increased in recent years due to better survival of immunocompromized patients, increasing use of invasive devices, implants, transplants and immunosuppressive therapy etc.,… Continue Reading Opportunistic infection

NK cells or also known as in the full form “Natural killer cells” are lymphocytes without T-cell receptors, which primarily act against intracellular antigens e.g. virus-infected cells and malignant cells i.e. aberrant host cells and killing them. They act as defense mechanism and instantly kill any virus infected cells that… Continue Reading NK cells

Immunity – Initial host-defense mechanisms against invasion by a pathogen include a) Anatomical skin and mucosal integrity, b) physiological milieu of the tissues e.g. acidic gastric pH, c) mechanical clearance of cell debris e.g. maco-ciliary movements, d) normal microbial colonizing flora that competitively oppose invading pathogens. Once these barriers are breached,… Continue Reading Immunity

Parenteral fluid therapy is the essential component of critical child care, required not only to correct dehydration but also to provide maintenance fluid! Electrolyte requirements in children who cannot be given oral fluids due to critical sickness, surgery, persistent vomiting or any other reason. PRINCIPLES OF Parenteral fluid therapy Some… Continue Reading Parenteral fluid therapy

Fluid therapy in children requires precise calculations of fluid/electrolyte requirements, as the volume, composition and rate of administration for parenteral fluids varies with indication, circulatory status and laboratory values of electrolytes. Important determinants for initial fluid therapy include — a) Whether patient is dehydrated or requires only maintenance therapy? b)… Continue Reading Fluid therapy