Acid base regulation – As H ions are produced and eliminated at a variable rate, Continuous normal Acid base regulation depends on — a) Immediate buffering mechanisms to prevent rapid changes in pH, and b) Subsequent compensatory mechanisms to correct the actual biochemical change. A) Buffering mechanisms of Acid base regulation: Immediately after… Continue Reading Acid base regulation

Hypermagnesemia – Although clinical severity may not correlate with serum levels, the term Hypomagnesemia denotes S. magnesium levels < 1.3 mg/dl. Causes Hypomagnesemia frequently co-exists with hypocalcaemia, usually due to impaired absorption or increased urinary losses. Clinical manifestations: Hypomagnesemia induces skeletal resistance to PTH, leading to hypocalcaemia. Consequently, hypomagnesaemia and… Continue Reading Hypermagnesemia

Hypokalemia in children is the commonest electrolyte abnormality in sick children, defined as S. Potassium levels <3 mg. Causes Severe diarrhea/vomiting is the commonest cause of acute hypokalemia in children, while persistent hypokalemia usually indicates underlying renal disease. Pathophysiology Low extracellular potassium levels slow down the post-depolarization return of potassium… Continue Reading Hypokalemia in children

Hypernatremia in children is relatively less common than hyponatremia, defined as serum sodium levels> 150 meqlL. Causes Hypernatremia in children is usually iatrogenic in origin, due to use of concentrated ORS/parenteral fluids. Concentration hypematremia is seen in disorders with excessive water loss e.g. diabetes insipidus. Pathophysiology Hypernatremia leads to increased… Continue Reading Hypernatremia in children

Calcitonin is synthesized and released from the parafollicular ‘C’ cells of the thyroid gland and both the processes are under the control of plasma levels of calcaemia. Hypercalcaemia stimulates the synthesis and release of calcitonin. Besides, the release of calcitonin is also stimulated by several compounds such as glucagon, prolactin,… Continue Reading Calcitonin