Immunization schedule for children

Immunological agents include products for both – active immunization i.e. vaccines, as well as passive immunization i.e. immunoglobulins. Vaccines are formulations containing live or killed pathogens, their subunits or their toxins, minus their virulence. Currently available immunization schedule for children Vaccines may be classified into different types based upon the viability of organisms, contents and

What do babies do in the womb

What do babies do in the womb – Most of the new would be mothers want to know about the movement of their baby in their womb. They are quite inquisitive about it because they have to carry the baby in their womb everywhere for nearly 9 months. Hence they end up asking question what do babies


Early (Presenting) Complications of PEM: a) Infections include Common like ARI, Diarrhea, TB, helminthiasis. Severe Gram —ye sepsis, septic shock, DIC and Opportunistic Candidiasis b) Hypothermia c) Metabolic Hypoglycemia Hypocalcaemia Hypomagnesemia d) Fluid & electrolyte imbalance Dehydration Hypokalemia Hypernatremia e) Lactose intolerance f) Severe anemia & other nutrient deficiencies g) Congestive cardiac failure Late (Recovery) complications:


Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is the commonest health problem in preschool children of developing countries, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Children are more vulnerable to Protein energy malnutrition due to relatively higher caloric and protein requirements for growth and physical activity. Even subclinical under nutrition in this age group may lead to long-term growth and

Physiology of lactation

Physiology of lactation – Anatomically, the breast is made up of glandular tissue, supporting tissue and fat. There are 20-25 alveoli in each breast, each lined by epithelial cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. Milk is secreted in alveoli by epithelial cells and pushed forward by contraction of myoepithelial cells. Each alveoli drains its output via

Balanced diet for children

Balanced diet for children is the ‘diet containing variety of foods in such quantities and proportions, which fulfills the needs for all essential nutrients, necessary to maintain optimal health and growth. Principles: General characteristics of a balanced diet for children, based on dietary goals from various sources (Prudent diet; WHO) are as follows — a) Quantitatively,

Psychosomatic Disorders in children

Psychosomatic Disorders – Although emotional stress is a known precipitating/ exacerbating event for many medical illnesses e.g. asthma, diarrhea or epilepsy; two specific and important psychosomatic illnesses are conversion disorder and Munchausen syndrome by proxy, discussed here. Conversion disorder denotes loss or alteration of physical functioning without a demonstrable illness. This disorder is usually seen in

Failure to thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT) is a clinical state of growth failure due to any cause, characterized by any one or more of following features: Although weight is a defining criteria, other parameters of growth like height, are frequently affected. Etiologically it may be due to non-organic or organic causes. Non-organic is more common up to


Physical Child growth is evident by chronological changes in — a) General body size and appearance i.e. anthropometric indicators, b) Specific features e.g. dentition and skeletal maturation, and c) Internal body composition. Despite individual variations, most of these changes follow a predictable pattern, and any significant deviation from this pattern may be the earliest or

Bone age in child

Bone age – Skeletal maturation begins in utero with formation of endochondral bones, followed by appearance of ossification centers and completion of ossification, the last two events continuing in postnatal life. Normal maturation: It is important to note that — • Earliest epiphyseal centers to appear are for os-calcis and talus, at 22-26 weeks of intrauterine


Growth assessment in children is the essential part of child health surveillance, even in absence of apparent abnormality. While assessment may be considered as one-point process, Growth monitoring is more important and requires serial data e.g. Weight, to detect changes in growth parameters over a period of time. Indications for growth assessment in children are


Growth monitoring/promotion (GMP) is defined as “an operational strategy to enable mothers to visualize growth or lack of growth in their children, and to receive specific, relevant and practical guidance in ways in which she, her family and community in general can act to assure health and continued growth in them”. Objectives of growth monitoring


Factors affecting child development – Growth and development is a complex process that depends on the inherent biological potential as well as various environmental influences including social, emotional and pathological factors. Important factors affecting child development are as follows — I. Intrinsic (Biological) factors affecting child development determine the inherent pace, pattern and ultimate potential


Childhood is the formative period in human life, subjected to various intrinsic and extrinsic influences affecting their survival, health and disease. State of child health in a community reflects its overall socioeconomic development and health concerns. Constitutionally, a child has been defined as an individual <18 years of age, though conventionally, a pediatrician in India


Baby lip quivering is another common behavior seen in breast feeding infants. The shaking of the lips occur, sometimes in an unusual manner. It can be too fast but slight movement, or very slow and big movements. However, the quiring in infants is commonly mistaken for fits or other abnormalities, especially if the mother is a


Baby vomiting through nose or mouth is very common in small children. There may also be other symptoms which depend on what is the cause of this vomiting. A child may be having temperature, pain in the abdomen, an upset stomach or loose motions. Baby vomiting through nose or mouth may be harmful to the

Baby with big penis

As a baby is growing and developing his physical characteristics are determined by the genes. These genes contain hereditary factors that are passed down from the parents. There are many instances where the parents want to know if their baby with big penis is normal. According to the doctors, it has been found that although

Breast growth during pregnancy

Let us understand how to cope with breast growth during pregnancy. During the first few weeks of pregnancy, breasts become sore and tender. Women may experience pain as the nipples become sensitive. When a woman is pregnant, there are a lot of adjustments going on in her body to make way for the baby. Certain

Preparing for pregnancy

A well balanced and healthy diet is essential for both your well being and that of your baby while preparing for pregnancy. Everything that you eat and drink will also become your unborn child’s nourishment and what you store before pregnancy is important for early fetal development when all the major organs are formed. One

Postnatal exercise

Postnatal exercise is one of the most important aspects of the postnatal care period. Despite losing the combined weight of the baby, the placenta, and the amniotic fluid, you will still be heavier than you were before you became pregnancy. You may even find that you have to continue to wear maternity clothes for a

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