Clinical Examination of the Ear Equipment for Ear Examination Both indirect and direct light sources are used 1. Bull’s eye lamp-indirect light source. 2. Head mirror. 3. Head light-direct light source. 4. Ear specula of various sizes-The largest speculum which can be conveniently inserted into the ear canal should be… Continue Reading Clinical Examination for Ear Disease

HISTORY TAKING History taking and careful clinical examination is very much essential to establish a proper diagnosis. No amount of present day sophisticated investigations can replace thorough history taking and careful clinical examination. History taking for ear diseases can be described under the following headings: • Chief complaints • History… Continue Reading History Taking for Ear Infections

It was Mach in 1875 that identified the role of the vestibular apparatus in the perception of motion. This consists of functional subdivisions – Semicircular canals-Sense of head rotation. Otolith organs-Stimulated by gravity and linear acceleration of the head. Physiologically, the vestibular labyrinth transduces mechanical energy (linear and angular) into… Continue Reading Vestibular System- Mechanism and Functions

Development It starts in the 3rd week of the intrauterine life and is completed by the 16th week of the intrauterine life. Membranous labyrinth develops from the otic capsule. This differentiates into various structures, like sensory end organ of hearing and equilibrium. Bony labyrinth develops from the otic capsule. This… Continue Reading Inner Ear Anatomy- Development and Relationship

EAR DEVELOPMENT Ear has a very complex source of development. The sound conductive apparatus develops from the branchial apparatus whereas the sound perceptive apparatus develops from the ectodermal otocyst (pars otica). Because of this dual source of origin the developmental anomaly that produced commonly affects either the sound conductive system… Continue Reading Embryology of the Ear

Sjogrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by triad of dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), dry month (xerostomia) and arthritis. It has been classified into primary where the disease occurs by itself and secondary when it is associated with other autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosis, polymyositis, scleroderma and Rheumatid arthritis… Continue Reading Sjogrens syndrome