Brucellosis – Overview

According to the Brucellosis history, the disease causing agent Brucella was discovered in the year 1887. David Bruce first discovered the bacteria in the sleeps of British soldiers who were fatally infected while they were stationed in the Malta Island. The brucellosis history dates back to centuries when sections of the infected patients spleen were tested with Grams method and also with methylene blue, thus revealing large number of micrococcus.

According to the brucellosis history, another four cases showed bits of spleen tissue that were inoculated into tubes containing the nutrient agar and small round colonies that appeared after incubation at 37 degrees centigrade for sixty eight hours. Upon examination of the stained smears under very high power, numerous micrococci were again visualized.

Thus, in the second presentation, David Bruce described the presence of similar bacteria in another fatal case with various organisms measuring from 0.0008 to 0.001 mm in diameter, singly and in pairs that were scattered in the organs.


According to the brucellosis history, later reports revealed the pathology of the disease in humans and it was compared to typhoid fever and malaria, and thus, the bacteria were classified as gram negative. After the initial diagnosis of the disease, M.Louis Hughes published a monogram that contained detailed information about the disease that was present in enlarged spleens of very rare fatally infected humans.

Although there was no pathological evidence of the disease, the main cause was identified as lack of proper sanitary conditions. When the natural brucellosis history was defined, it marked the end of centuries of effort that started from the first clinical presentation of the disease.

The citation of such descriptions is often considered sufficient evidence that the disease had existed for long periods of time before its identity was established by an isolation of the etiological agent. According to Hughes, a disease pattern that was compatible with brucellosis was described by Hippocrates.

However, according to the brucellosis history, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries several medical writers related cases of intermittent fever suggestive of brucellosis. A large number of descriptions of the disease include intermittent typhoid, typho malarial fever, remittent fever, Mediterranean gastric remittent fever.

The history of brucellosis revelers that brucellosis was also known as Mediterranean fever, rock or Gibraltar fever, Malta fever Neapolitan fever, Cyprus fever and undulant fever.

Most authorities agree that the first accurate description of brucellosis in the brucellosis history as a disease entity was given by Marston in the year 542 when he was an assistant Surgeon in the British Army Medical Department, who wrote during the year 1860 on the description of the Mediterranean gastric Remittent Fever.

There were many other accounts of the disease in the history of brucellosis that was caused due to the etiological agent known as Micrococcus Melitensis and there was also a presentation of the clinical discussion of the disease. Thus, the disease is known to exist for over a century now and it is found in cattle’s ass well as human beings. Various vaccinations have been developed in order to prevent the spread of the disease.


Brucellosis undulant fever is a contagious disease that is caused by bacteria of the genus brucella. The disease is referred to as Brucellosis and it is known to affect animals as well as human beings. When an individual is infected with brucellosis he may show sign of brucellosis undulant fever. Major symptoms include rising and falling fevers that show a wavy pattern and thus the name undulant fever. The individual may also show a sign of excessive sweating that is associated with malaise.

The patient may also complain of weakness and fatigue and there may be symptoms of anorexia. Sometimes, there are headaches and muscular pains, and backaches are also seen in patients suffering from brucellosis undulant fever. Brucellosis is transmitted through ingestion of the disease causing bacteria that is present in the various types of animal products that are consumed by humans. In some cases, the infection may also result due to contact with an infected animal. Brucellosis fever is very common in veterinary doctors and laboratory workers who may have come in contact with an infected animal.

Brucellosis fever and excessive sweating is the major sign for recognizing the disease. The disease causing bacteria may be transmitted when the individual ingests contaminated unpasteurized milk produced from infected animal. It is also transmitted through direct contact with animal carcass that may be containing the brucellosis bacteria. If the aborted fetus from an infected animal is not discarded, it can also be the cause of infection. Therefore, proper precaution must be taken when dealing with an infected animal.

Chronic brucellosis

According to a medical journal, a detailed survey of the symptoms of chronic brucellosis was conducted based on observations of veterinary surgeons working in different regions. The observations were mainly conducted based on the symptoms during observation of cattle that were infected with brucella.

The common symptoms observed in chronic brucellosis included excessive sweating and weakness. Most of the patients show symptoms of malaise and irritability and depression. In case of chronic brucellosis, there were signs of rheumatism and arthritis.

The veterinary doctors also reported the presence of backache which was very significant in the case of people infected with chronic brucellosis. It was also found that common symptoms related to the alimentary canal were very much prevalent in all patients that were infected with brucellosis.

Headache and insomnia were found in chronic presentation of the disease. Furthermore, it was found that there was a high level of serological brucella antibody titers found in asymptomatic persons that were infected with chronic brucellosis. In fact, it was found that a large number of surgeons show symptoms of the disease within a period of five years. Therefore, proper precautionary measures must be applied when dealing with infected cattle.

Brucellosis is known to be transmitted to human beings when it is ingested in the form of unpasteurized milk that may contain the bacteria. It can also be transferred when the veterinary surgeon or other workers come in contact with the body fluid or infected meat from the cattle showing symptoms of brucellosis.

The individual handling cattle must wear gloves and other gear that is used for protection in order to avoid direct contact with the carcass. After the procedure is completed, the gloves and all other gear must be burned in order to avoid spread of the disease.

Brucellosis epidemiology

According to the brucellosis epidemiology, brucellosis is commonly found in cattle and is major cause of concern in the United States of America. In most cases, the risk of transmission is always there as the disease causing agent can be transmitted from the infected fetus. This usually occurs when the infected fetus is exposed to susceptible host.

However, research shows that the brucellosis epidemiology occurs when the disease causing agent is ingested by the cattle. This can be transmitted to other cattle through the process of reproduction. In this case, the infected semen is responsible for spreading the disease In many cases, the infected animal may not show any symptoms of the disease. Thus, the brucellosis epidemiology continues to propagate through infected milk that is produced by the cattle.

This infected milk is a major cause of infection in calves as well as humans who ingest the infected milk. The main form of transmission occurs when the healthy animal comes in contact with infected tissue of the fetus, or when it comes in contact with fluids that are expelled from the body of the infected animal during the birth process.

It is also available in the uterine fluids or in the form of vaginal discharges from infected animals. In case the female cow is infected, the brucellosis epidemiology leads to the abortion of the first pregnancy. In some case, the brucellosis epidemiology is confined to the lymph nodes and the tissue is found in the udder of the female cow. Thus, the calves could also become infected by feeding on milk produced by the infected cow.

Brucellosis Transmission to Humans

Brucellosis transmission occurs when the disease causing bacteria spreads from animals to humans. Some of the most common mode of brucellosis transmission includes contact infection, food borne infection, and air borne infection. The disease causing brucella genus bacteria are present in the tissue and body fluids and transmission occurs when the individual comes in direct contact with the bacteria. In most cases, the brucellosis transmission is done by contact with infected tissues of the infected animal.

It could also occur when the individual comes in contact with the infected animal’s blood or urine. The brucellosis infection is very common in the case of veterinary doctors and their assistants who may be involved in direct contact with vaginal discharge, aborted fetus and placenta of the infected animal during the process of childbirth. The bacteria may penetrate through the mucosa or conjunctiva and invade other organs. This type of infection is very commonly found in individuals involved in slaughterhouses. If there is a food borne infection, then brucellosis transmission may occur due to ingestion of contaminated unpasteurized milk or other dairy products that are made from the raw milk.

It has been found that fresh vegetables may also be a major source of infection as they may collect bacteria from the manure that is used to fertilize the soil. Contaminated water may also be a major source of infection as it may contain the excreta of infected animals leading to brucellosis transmission to humans. Brucellosis disease transmission could also spread when the individual inhales infected dust or aerosols containing the disease causing agent leading to brucellosis in humans.

Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Humans

Brucellosis is a contagious disease that affects cattle, goats, dogs and pigs. The disease causing bacteria can also spread to the humans, especially those that come in close contact with infected animals. The bacteria of genus brucella lodge themselves in the tissues and body fluids and thus one must be very careful when handling tissue and milk produced by infected animals. The bacteria may transmit through mucous membranes and lodge themselves in the lymph nodes and spleen.

If the individuals ingest contaminated unpasteurized milk and milk products, it could lead to the spread of brucellosis to the animals. It has been found that the diagnosis of brucellosis is very rare in the United States of America. Brucellosis is very prevalent as almost 200 to 300 cases are being reported on an annual basis. Moreover, people who are in contact may contract the disease when they come in contact with animals or infected meat. The individuals may be slaughterhouse workers, farmers, and even the veterinary doctors are also at a high risk.

The diagnosis of brucellosis includes mild flu like symptoms like fever, abdominal pain and back pain. There may be excessive sweating associated with undulant fevers in the patient suffering from brucellosis. The diagnosis of brucellosis in some cases also showed symptoms of fatigue, headache, loss of appetite, weakness and weight loss. A major problem with the diagnosis of brucellosis is that most physicians are unable to identify the symptoms in the patients due to lack of information. This is important for the eradication of brucellosis in the cattle available in the herd.

Brucellosis in horses

Brucellosis in horses is caused by the disease causing brucella Abortus or Brucella Suis. It is also known as supportive bursitis that is most commonly recognized as fistulus withers or poll evil is the most common clinical presentation of the brucellosis in Horses.

In rare cases, abortion has been reported when there is brucellosis in horses. Also, it has been found that there are no known cases where brucellosis in horses has been transmitted to other horses, or other animals or even humans. The disease occurs when the bacteria is ingested by the horse while feeding in areas that lack proper sanitary conditions. The disease can be identified by testing the aborted fetus of the infected horses.

It is also known to reduce fertility in the horses. Therefore, proper precautionary measure must be taken when bringing the horse back from an animal fair or exhibition. The horse must be quarantined and tested for any infection before it is reintroduced in the herd. Thus proper preventive measures must be taken while buying horses and they must be tested for brucellosis in horses.

Brucellosis is also common in other significant animals like goats, pigs, sheep and other cattle found in the farm. Brucellosis is also found in human beings, especially those who are in contact with the infected livestock. This includes veterinary doctors, assistants, laboratory workers and others who are in contact with the infected horses. If any animal is identified with the disease, it is slaughtered in order to eradicate the disease causing agent.

Symptoms of Swine Brucellosis

Brucellosis is common in all forms of domesticated animals including cattle, sheep, pigs and goats. Swine Brucellosis is an infectious disease that is commonly found in pigs. The disease is caused by bacteria that are from the brucella suis strain and it has been spreading at a fast pace. The infection can be caused due to any form of contact with the secretions that are produced from the infected animal. In most cases, the symptoms of Swine brucellosis are caused by semen that may be infected and is transmitted during breeding.

The symptoms of Swine Brucellosis are caused due to the spread of the disease causing bacteria from the milk or other reproductive fluids that are formed from the infected pig. Placenta, aborted fetuses and urine from the infected pig can also cause the spread of the symptoms of swine brucellosis. Inhalation or eye contact with the pig that is infected can also lead to chronic illnesses. If the pig has a genetic tendency where it has a reduced response to the disease, it may also result in chronic brucellosis.

When symptoms of swine brucellosis occur in adult pigs, it leads to non specific infertility and in other cases, there is an increased incidence of abortions in the pigs and the animals also show a lack of sexual drive. Wild Boars may also show signs of the disease that is indicated by symptoms like arthritis, lameness, and posterior paralysis. In spite of all the advancements in the technology, research is still going on as there are no available vaccines for the disease. On the other hand, there is no cure for the symptoms of swine brucellosis.

Wild boars can cause serious infections in pigs and the most commonly found disease is known as swine brucellosis. The disease causing bacteria is very similar to that found in cows, horses, dogs or sheep. When brucellosis occurs in cattle, it is major cause of concern and proper precautions must be taken in order to curb the spread of the disease. Clinical presentation of the disease includes abortions in sows and the disease is identified when tests are conducted on the aborted fetus.

In the case of wild boars, swine brucellosis causes infertility. The bacteria can continue to exist in the pigs for a long period of time without showing any symptoms. But when swine brucellosis occurs in the cattle it can be very debilitating for the business as it causes a decrease in profits.

The swine brucellosis bacteria are transmitted through body fluids, especially those that are expelled from the uterus at the time of birth. These are also found in the semen of infected wild boars and in the infected sows. The most common method to eradicate the disease is by culling the infected animals. Proper care must be taken when handling infected wild boars.

One must wear gloves and disposable plastic when handling the carcass of the wild boars. One must make sure to properly dispose off all gloves and other gear used while handling the infected pigs. When bringing the pigs back from an affair, one must follow proper precautionary measures and isolate the animal in order to observe any signs of swine brucellosis in the pigs.

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