(1) Panoramic ExtraOral Radiographs. They show the entire dentition and surrounding tissues and structures on one film. The Panorex and Panelipse films are types of panoramic films taken as overall surveys of the jaws. These extraoral radiographs are taken to diagnose: • Pathology in tissue (growths or abnormal bone). • Development of permanent dentition under


Dental protectives and dressings are used as protective linings for cavities in order to prevent staining or chemical irritation of the dentine . They are also used as varnishes over synthetic fillings to protect them from secretions until setting is complete. Another important use of Dental protectives and dressings is to help in pulp healing.


Cavity preparation can be defined as the procedure by which caries are removed and the area of the tooth is shaped to retain the restoration. PRINCIPLES OF CAVITY PREPARATION The traditional Cavity preparation is composed of seven essential steps. In the first three steps, the dentist examines the tooth that needs the cavity preparation. 1.


Glass ionomer cement – Building upon the polycarboxylates, researchers developed the glass ionomers in the mid-1970s. The glass ionomer cement liberate large amounts of fluoride ions, which have been demonstrated to increase resistance to recurrent decay. Use of glass ionomer cement as Luting Cement Because of their cariostatic property, glass ionomer cement have become highly


Dentition in children may be divided into 3 chronological stages — a) eruption of primary or deciduous teeth, b) exfoliation of these teeth, and c) eruption of permanent teeth, though the timings of these events are too variable to be useful for growth assessment. Normal dentition in children: Important events in normal dentition include —


Tooth Surfaces – There are several characteristics of the external appearance of a tooth. The following section describes the tooth surfaces of both the anterior and posterior teeth. Proximal The proximal tooth surfaces or contact is formed by the contact of two adjacent teeth. The mesial surface of one tooth contacts the distal surface of


The permanent dentition consists of the permanent teeth in the human oral cavity, those teeth which remain throughout one’s adult life. The permanent dentition is also known as the secondary dentition. The permanent dentition numbers 32 teeth altogether. There are 16 teeth in both the maxillary and mandibular arches. Each arch can be further divided


The mixed dentition refers to the presence of primary and permanent teeth together in the oral cavity. This usually occurs between the ages of five and thirteen years as primary teeth are exfoliated and permanent teeth erupt. It is during the time of mixed dentition that dental abnormalities become apparent. Dental conditions such as missing


Cardiac Glycosides – Some Points in Cardiac Glycosides for Dental Students are discussed in this article. No specific dental modifications are necessary for well-compensated patients with heart failure, unless the underlying causes for the heart failure require modifications. In uncompensated heart failure, it is important to enquire about the patient’s ability to be placed in


Functions of Teeth – Humans use teeth to tear, grind, and chew food in the first step of digestion. Teeth also play a role in human speech. Additionally, Functions of Teeth also provide structural support to muscles in the face and form the human smile and other facial expressions. So, broadly the main functions of


Greeks history of dentistry – The ancient Greeks lived and flourished in an age of discovery. It was during the time of this civilization that there was much advancement made in the field of medicine. The earliest of these advancements in history of dentistry was found in the fifth century B.C. A medical school located


Egyptian history of dentistry – One of the greatest civilizations of ancient times was the Egyptians. There was a well-defined class system in Egyptian history of dentistry Those within the upper hierarchy often proved to become extraordinary in their field. The system helped to produce some of the most accomplished architects, scientists, and healers. The


Antihypertensive drugs – Clinically hypertension is persistently raised arterial pressure which is primarily due to increased vascular resistance in the systemic circulation. In due course of time, heart undergoes hypertrophy and subsequently failure because it has to work against a permanently increased after load. If the condition remains untreated and uncontrolled for a long period,


Smooth muscle relaxants act as Vasodilators- These drugs act directly and dilate the blood vessels. Due to this, there occurs fall in blood pressure. Their action is independent of the innervations of the vascular smooth muscle and is not mediated by adrenergic, cholinergic or histaminergic receptors. Hydralazine, indaparnide and xipamide are effective orally whereas sodium


Skeletal Muscle Relaxants reduce muscle tone and/or cause paralysis. To achieve this, Skeletal Muscle Relaxants may act peripherally at the neuromuscular junction/muscle fiber itself or centrally in the cerebrospinal axis. Drugs, that block transmission of impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction, are called neuromuscular blocking agents. These blockers act mainly at the post-junctional level. On


Local anesthetics(LA) are drugs which have following features: 1. Used for topical application or local injection. 2. Cause reversible loss of sensory perception in a restricted area of the body. 3. Prevent generation and propagation of nerve action potential at all parts of the neuron where they come in contact, without causing any structural damage.


Adrenoceptor blocking agents or adrenoceptor antagonists are drugs that inhibit responses mediated by Adrenoceptor activation caused by epinephrine and related drugs. They also block (less completely) effects of adrenergic nerve stimulation. On the other hand, adrenergic neurone blocking drugs act on adrenergic neuronal membrane or contents and block (more completely) the effects of adrenergic nerve


Epilepsy is a Greek word for seizures. It is a common chronic neurological problem. It affects about 0.5% of the population. In most of the patients, the etiology is unknown. It is characterized with brief episode of seizures which appear with or without loss of consciousness. An epileptic seizure is precipitated by high frequency electrical


Nausea is a desire to vomit. It may or may not culminate in vomiting. Emesis or vomiting is a protective mechanism. It serves to eliminate harmful substances from the stomach and duodenum. Emesis is a coordinated act of medullary vomiting centre (VC) and the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), situated fri the area postrema in the


Peptic ulcer is a major health problem. It is a wound inside the stomach or duodenum. It occurs due to localized destruction of the inner wall (mucosa) of the stomach (gastric ulcer) pr the upper part of the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). It is usually associated with the hyperacidity. The causes of peptic ulcer are

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