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Children Health

Tetany in children

Tetany in children: Tetany is a clinical entity, indicative of neuronal hyperexcitabiliiy due to abnormal concentration of various ions in the fluid bathing nerve cells. Causes: Tetany is caused by Hypocalcaemia (S. ionic Ca< 3.0 mg/dl), Hypomagnesemia (S. Mg < 1.0 mg/dl), Alkalosis – Respiratory or Metabolic Clinical manifestations Carpopedal …

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Hypocalcemia in children

Hypocalcemia in children: Though the term ‘hypocalcemia’ is generally used to denote S. Calcium <9 mg/dl, clinical manifestations depend on ionic Ca levels (<3.0 mgldl). If facility to measure ionic Ca’ is not available, it is worthwhile to measure S. albumin levels simultaneously. In normal buminic, low S. Calcium reflects …

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Hypokalemia in children

Hypokalemia in children is the commonest electrolyte abnormality in sick children, defined as S. Potassium levels <3 mg. Causes Severe diarrhea/vomiting is the commonest cause of acute hypokalemia in children, while persistent hypokalemia usually indicates underlying renal disease. Pathophysiology Low extracellular potassium levels slow down the post-depolarization return of potassium …

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Hypernatremia in children

Hypernatremia in children is relatively less common than hyponatremia, defined as serum sodium levels> 150 meqlL. Causes Hypernatremia in children is usually iatrogenic in origin, due to use of concentrated ORS/parenteral fluids. Concentration hypematremia is seen in disorders with excessive water loss e.g. diabetes insipidus. Pathophysiology Hypernatremia leads to increased …

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Edema in children

Edema in children is a clinical term to denote – excess accumulation of fluids in interstitial fluid compartment, which normally contributes to —45% of TBW. Etiology Edema is caused by any factor that a) reduces plasma oncotic pressure, b) increases hydrostatic pressure, c) increases capillary permeability, and d) prevents lymphatic …

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What is PEM (Protein energy malnutrition) and its causes

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is the commonest health problem in preschool children of developing countries, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Children are more vulnerable to Protein energy malnutrition due to relatively higher caloric and protein requirements for growth and physical activity. Even subclinical under nutrition in this age group …

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Lactation failure

Lactation failure – Breast milk (EM) is the only food that a baby needs unto first 4-6 months of life and gives the best possible nutritional start to the neonate. Exclusive breastfeeding (BF) means that the neonate gets only breast milk and nothing else like honey, water, juices, vitamins (unless …

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Breastfeeding practices

Although Breast feeding (BF) is a norm in India, many problems during lactation may be avoided by following correct breastfeeding practices, discussed below — Antenatal preparation is one of the good breastfeeding practices with Breast examination to check protractility of nipples, maternal counseling regarding importance and correct practices of Breast feeding, …

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – diagnosis, management and treatment

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children, characterized by three core-groups of age-inappropriate symptoms hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness; leading to secondary problems like poor scholastic performance, conduct disorders, emotional and social maladjustment etc. While some children have all three components of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, …

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Psychosomatic Disorders in children

Psychosomatic Disorders – Although emotional stress is a known precipitating/ exacerbating event for many medical illnesses e.g. asthma, diarrhea or epilepsy; two specific and important psychosomatic illnesses are conversion disorder and Munchausen syndrome by proxy, discussed here. Conversion disorder denotes loss or alteration of physical functioning without a demonstrable illness. …

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