Hypokalemia in children is the commonest electrolyte abnormality in sick children, defined as S. Potassium levels <3 mg. Causes Severe diarrhea/vomiting is the commonest cause of acute hypokalemia in children, while persistent hypokalemia usually indicates underlying renal disease. Pathophysiology Low extracellular potassium levels slow down the post-depolarization return of potassium… Continue Reading Hypokalemia in children

Hypernatremia in children is relatively less common than hyponatremia, defined as serum sodium levels> 150 meqlL. Causes Hypernatremia in children is usually iatrogenic in origin, due to use of concentrated ORS/parenteral fluids. Concentration hypematremia is seen in disorders with excessive water loss e.g. diabetes insipidus. Pathophysiology Hypernatremia leads to increased… Continue Reading Hypernatremia in children

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is the commonest health problem in preschool children of developing countries, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Children are more vulnerable to Protein energy malnutrition due to relatively higher caloric and protein requirements for growth and physical activity. Even subclinical under nutrition in this age group… Continue Reading What is PEM (Protein energy malnutrition) and its causes

Although Breast feeding (BF) is a norm in India, many problems during lactation may be avoided by following correct breastfeeding practices, discussed below — Antenatal preparation is one of the good breastfeeding practices with Breast examination to check protractility of nipples, maternal counseling regarding importance and correct practices of Breast feeding,… Continue Reading Breastfeeding practices

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children, characterized by three core-groups of age-inappropriate symptoms hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness; leading to secondary problems like poor scholastic performance, conduct disorders, emotional and social maladjustment etc. While some children have all three components of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,… Continue Reading Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – diagnosis, management and treatment

Psychosomatic Disorders – Although emotional stress is a known precipitating/ exacerbating event for many medical illnesses e.g. asthma, diarrhea or epilepsy; two specific and important psychosomatic illnesses are conversion disorder and Munchausen syndrome by proxy, discussed here. Conversion disorder denotes loss or alteration of physical functioning without a demonstrable illness.… Continue Reading Psychosomatic Disorders in children